Number of realizations

8

chopped billet

base for beheading

Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Ingush
Lexeme гар (gar)
Meaning 1 log
Direction
Meaning 2 executioner's block
Reference Kurkiev 2004 page 100
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Realization
Type Polysemy
Language English
Lexeme block
Meaning 1 block, chunk
Direction
Meaning 2 base for beheading This block was made for the execution of Lord Lovat in 1746 for his part in the Jacobite Rebellion.
Reference <personally collected data>
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Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Italian
Lexeme ceppo
Meaning 1 Lower part, foot, of the woody plants, from which the trunk rises and from where the roots branch off and often many suckers are born
Direction
Meaning 2 Large piece of trunk, cut and trimmed, which is used to sit on it or to perform some work on it (breaking the flesh, supporting the anvil, etc.); in particular, the pile on which the heads of those sentenced to death were cut off
Reference Vocabolario Treccani
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Realization
Type Derivation
Language Finnish
Lexeme 1 pölkky
Lexeme 2 mestauspölkky
Meaning 1 log, stock, block of wood
Direction
Meaning 2 base for beheading Miekalla teloitettaessa mestauspölkky ei ole välttämätön, vaan mestaus voitiin suorittaa teloitettavan ollessa polvistuneena, kuin rukoukseen
"When executing with a sword, a log is not necessary, but the execution could be performed with the person to be executed kneeling, as in prayer."
Reference <personally collected data>
Related Languages
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Realization
Type Polysemy
Language French
Lexeme billot
Meaning 1 large section of cylindrical or squarely cut wood, usually rising to the support height, and the upper part of which has a flat surface L’homme revenait après avoir enfermé le chien et soigneusement calé avec un billot de bois la porte contre laquelle la bête se ruait en grondant.
"The man was returning after having locked the dog and carefully propped up with a block of wood the door against which the beast rushed, growling."
Direction
Meaning 2 (in particular) a block of wood on which the head of a person sentenced to beheading was leaning in order to execute him Il mit sa tête sur le billot et reçut le coup fatal.
"He put his head on the block and received the fatal blow."
Reference <personally collected data>
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language German
Lexeme Block
Meaning 1 block of wood
Direction
Meaning 2 base for beheading
Reference Moskal'skaja (ed.) 2001
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Russian
Lexeme плаха (plaha)
Meaning 1 half of a log split along Дрова были сырые, горели натужно.. Желто-красный огонь трепетно обнимал толстые плахи и злился, змеиными языками лизал кирпич низкого свода [печи]. (М. Горький)
"The firewood was damp, it burned strainedly .. The yellow-red fire tremblingly embraced the thick blocks and was angry, licking the brick of the low vault [of the stove] with snake tongues."
Direction
Meaning 2 wooden block on which in the old days they cut off the head of a condemned to death Как скоро Пугачев готов был повалиться на плаху, брат мой отворотился, чтобы не видеть взмаха топора (Дмитриев И. И. Взгляд на мою жизнь)
"As soon as Pugachev was ready to fall on the block, my brother turned away so as not to see the swing of the ax"
Reference BAS page 9 1346
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Old East Slavic
Lexeme плаха (plaha)
Meaning 1 chopped billet А ... пошлина имати ... с телеги по плахе
"and take the duty ... one block from the cart (firewood)"
Direction
Meaning 2 base for beheading И тем (татям) будет от короля топор да плаха
"and those (thieves) will receive an ax and a block (= execution) from the king"
Reference SRJa XI-XVII page 15: 79
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