Shift #1163

to work ↔ to plough

Show map

Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Irish Gaelic
Lexeme oibrighim
Meaning 1 to work
Direction
Meaning 2 to plough
Reference Buck 494
Related Languages
Comment In Ó Dónaill 1977 'to plough' attested in free collocation such as oibriú le céachta to work with a plough
Realization
Type Derivation
Language Avestan
Lexeme 1 vərəz-
Lexeme 2 aiwi-vərəz-
Meaning 1 do, work
Direction
Meaning 2 cultivate, till
Reference Buck 494
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Old Norse
Lexeme yrkya
Meaning 1 work
Direction
Meaning 2 cultivate
Reference Cleasby, Vigfusson 726
Related Languages
Comment Buck 494. Modern Icelandic yrkja 'to cultivate'. From Proto-Germanic *wurkijaną 'to work'
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Old Norse
Lexeme vinna
Meaning 1 work, ;labour
Direction
Meaning 2 till, cultivate
Reference Cleasby, Vigfusson 708-709
Related Languages
Comment The second meaning is less frequent Buck 494
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Irish Gaelic
Lexeme saothraigh
Meaning 1 labor, toil Ag saothrú de lá is d’oíche
"toiling by day and by night"
Direction
Meaning 2 cultivate An talamh a shaothrú; Glasraí a shaothrú
"to till the land; to cultivate vegetables"
Reference Ó Dónaill 1977
Related Languages
Comment from saothar 'work, labour; toil, exertion; stress, effort'
Realization
Type Derivation
Language Latvian
Lexeme 1 strādēt
Lexeme 2 apstrādāt
Meaning 1 work
Direction
Meaning 2 cultivate, till
Reference Buck 494
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Semantic evolution
Language 1 Old French
Language 2 French
Lexeme labourer
Meaning 1 to work
Direction
Meaning 2 to plough
Reference Robert historique 1955
Related Languages Similar evolution in the Ital. lavorare 'to plough', Sp. labrar, Port. lavrar 'to plough'
Comment From Latin laboro, laborare 'to work'
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Romanian
Lexeme munci
Meaning 1 to work
Direction
Meaning 2 to cultivate the land
Reference NODEX
Related Languages
Comment DLRLC Cf. also the shift to work ↔ to suffer. The Rum. munci has been borrowed from the Slavic мучати 'to torment' DER 528.
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language German
Lexeme arbeiten
Meaning 1 to work
Direction
Meaning 2 to cultivate land
Reference Moskal'skaja (ed.) 2001
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Russian
Lexeme пахать (pahat')
Meaning 1 to plough
Direction
Meaning 2 to work (vern.) вчера на работе пахали до вечера
"yesterday at work we ground away till late"
Reference BTS
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Ancient Greek
Lexeme ἐργάζομαι
Meaning 1 to work
Direction
Meaning 2 to cultivate land, to plough ἀγρούς ἐργάζομαι
"to cultivate fields"
Reference LSJ 681
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Karaim
Lexeme ислэ-
Meaning 1 to work, to do
Direction
Meaning 2 to work, to cultivate ки ислэгейлэр йэрни
"form them to clutivate the land"
Reference KRPS 207
Related Languages
Comment An example of an intermediate case.
Realization
Type Derivation
Language Lithuanian
Lexeme 1 dirbti
Lexeme 2 apdirbti
Meaning 1 to work
Direction
Meaning 2 to plough
Reference LRŽ 32, 151
Related Languages
Comment Buck 494
Realization
Type Derivation
Language Serbo-Croatian
Lexeme 1 raditi
Lexeme 2 obraditi
Meaning 1 work
Direction
Meaning 2 cultivate, till
Reference Buck 494
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Church Slavonic
Lexeme дѣлати
Meaning 1 to do, to make, to work
Direction
Meaning 2 to cultivate land 1. и введе его въ рай сладости, дѣлати его и хранити 2. и изгна его гдь бгъ изъ рая сладости дѣлати землю, от неяже взятъ бысть
"1. and put him in the Garden of Eden to work it and take care of it (Genesis 2:15) 2. banished him from the Garden of Eden to work the ground from which he had been taken (Genesis 3:23)"
Reference Sedakova 2005 118
Related Languages Old Church Slavonic дѣлати ἐργάζεσθαι, πράττειν κάμνειν, laborare ‘to do, to work’, Bulgarian дялам ‘to trim (timber)’, макед. дела ‘to trim (timber), to plane (wood)’, Serbian делати ‘to do’, Slovene délati ‘to work, to do, to occupy with, to make, manufacture’, dial. délati ‘to comb (wool)’, Czeck dělati ‘to do, to work’, Old Slovak dělati zemi ‘to cultivate land’, Upper Sorbian dźěłać ‘to do, to work’, ‘to build’, Polabian d’olă / d’oloje ‘he works’, Lower Sorbian źěłaś ‘to work’ ‘to weave’, Polish działać ‘to do, to make, to create’, Old East Slavonic дѣлати ‘to do’, ‘to make, to build’, ‘to cultivate land’, Russian делать ‘to do’, ‘to make’, укр. дiлати ‘to do’ ESSJa 4, 231-232
Comment Cf. also the Rus. возделывать (нпр., пшеницу) 'to cultivate (e.g. wheat)', Czech vzdělavati
Realization
Type Derivation
Language Modern Greek
Lexeme 1 έργον
Lexeme 2 καλλιεργώ
Meaning 1 work
Direction
Meaning 2 cultivate, till
Reference Xorikov, Malev 1993 408
Related Languages
Comment Late Greek 'to decorate', in the passive it is 'to be well cultivated, ploughed'. Also Modern Greek καλλιέργεια 'horti)culture, cultivation' → culture (microbiology); καλλιεργητής 'farmworker, peasant'
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Chaha
Lexeme čotä-m
Meaning 1 to work čəfata adägä-m čotä-m 'to work hard'
Direction
Meaning 2 to plough, cultivate, farm, dig ṭäpa čotä-m 'to plough a field for the first time'; yäčoči afär 'ploughed field'
Reference
Related Languages The same polysemy in other Central West Gurage languages (Hezron 1977:135).
Comment (LGur. I 37).
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Old English
Lexeme tilian
Meaning 1 labor, strive, attend to
Direction
Meaning 2 till, cultivate
Reference Buck 494
Related Languages
Comment The second meaning emerges later. The Old English tilian related to till 'fixed point, goal' and til 'good, useful, suitable' from Proto-Germanic *tilojan (source also of Old Frisian tilia 'to get, cultivate', Old Saxon tilian 'to obtain', Middle Dutch, Dutch telen 'to breed, raise, cultivate, cause', Old High German zilon 'to strive', German zielen 'to aim, strive') Buck 494