Shift #31

free → can, to be able

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Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Yakut
Lexeme кѳҥүл (kɵŋyl)
Meaning 1 freedom, independence
Direction
Meaning 2 permission кѳҥүл ыл- (kɵŋyl ɯl-)
"to get a permission"
Reference Slepcov 1972 179
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Hungarian
Lexeme szabad
Meaning 1 free szabad város; szabad ember; Aki börtönben van, az nem szabad
"free city; free person; one who is in prison, is not free."
Direction
Meaning 2 one may (+ inf) ; it is allowed (to inf.) neki nem szabad inni; szabad itt dohányozni?; szabad oda bemenni?
"he is not allowed to drink; is it allowed to smoke here?; is it allowed to go in there?"
Reference Gal’di 1987 668
Related Languages
Comment From Slavic *svobodьnъ 'free' (Church Slavonic свободь (svodogь), Slovene slobod, Bulgarian слободен, Serbo-Croatian slȍbodan, Polish swobodny, Czech svobodný (Zaicz 2006))
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language French
Lexeme libre
Meaning 1 free un paysan libre
"a free peasant"
Direction
Meaning 2 able to do sth. les habitués de la place des Vosges étaient libres de l'apercevoir accoudé à la fenêtre
"the habitués of the Place des Vosges had the possibility to notice him leaning against the window"
Reference CNRTL
Related Languages
Comment Cf. also the obsolete expression Il est libre à qqn de + inf.: 'It is allowed to'
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Dutch
Lexeme vrij
Meaning 1 free vrij zijn
"to be free"
Direction
Meaning 2 can, to be able mag ik zo vrij zijn?
"Can I?"
Reference Mironov 1987 783-784
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Russian
Lexeme 1 вольный (vol'nyj)
Lexeme 2 волен (volen)
Meaning 1 free, independed, not-imprisoned, unrestricted Там были двое заключенных и трое вольных (Tam byli dvoe zaključennyx i troe vol'nyx)
"There were two prisoners and three freemen"
Direction
Meaning 2 having permission or opportunity Вы вольны поступать как считаете нужным. (Vy vol'ny postupat' kak sčitaete nužnym)
"You are free to do as you see fit."
Reference BAS 2, 634-636
Related Languages
Comment Second meaning only in short form of an ajective.