Shift #3883

earth → year

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Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Molala
Lexeme laŋs
Meaning 1 earth
Direction
Meaning 2 year
Reference Zhivlov 2019
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Derivation
Language Wintu
Lexeme 1 po·m
Lexeme 2 pom-, pomisim
Meaning 1 earth, land, ground, weather
Direction
Meaning 2 winter, year, in the winter
Reference Zhivlov 2019
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Wikchamni
Lexeme p’aʔan’
Meaning 1 earth
Direction
Meaning 2 year
Reference Zhivlov 2019
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Derivation
Language Palewyami
Lexeme 1 Hah-pahsˊ
Lexeme 2 Hahˊ-pil-le
Meaning 1 earth
Direction
Meaning 2 year
Reference Zhivlov 2019
Related Languages
Comment happaṣ, happil ‘earth’ (Harrington); hapil ‘earth’, nema ha’pil ‘world’ (Kroeber)
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Central Hill Nisenan
Lexeme k’aw
Meaning 1 earth, ground, place
Direction
Meaning 2 year
Reference Zhivlov 2019
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Ineseño
Lexeme šup
Meaning 1 earth
Direction
Meaning 2 year
Reference Zhivlov 2019
Related Languages
Comment From Proto-Southern Chumash *šup ‘earth’
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Barbareño
Lexeme shup
Meaning 1 world, earth; ground, soil, dirt, land
Direction
Meaning 2 year
Reference Zhivlov 2019
Related Languages
Comment From Proto-Southern Chumash *šup ‘earth’
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Yuki
Lexeme ʔon
Meaning 1 world, ground, land
Direction
Meaning 2 year
Reference Zhivlov 2019
Related Languages
Comment Proto-Yukian *ʔon ‘earth; ground; land; dirt’
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Ventureño
Lexeme šup
Meaning 1 earth
Direction
Meaning 2 year
Reference Zhivlov 2019
Related Languages
Comment From Proto-Southern Chumash *šup ‘earth’
Realization
Type Derivation
Language Wappo
Lexeme 1 ɔʹma
Lexeme 2 omaʹwɔn
Meaning 1 earth
Direction
Meaning 2 year
Reference Zhivlov 2019
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Tübatulabal
Lexeme šuwa·-l
Meaning 1 the earth
Direction
Meaning 2 his years
Reference Zhivlov 2019
Related Languages
Comment The word might be a cognate with Nahuatl šiwi-tl ‘year’
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Kawaiisu
Lexeme tii-pɨ
Meaning 1 dirt; earth
Direction
Meaning 2 year
Reference Zhivlov 2019
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Kitanemuk
Lexeme tɨva-č
Meaning 1 earth
Direction
Meaning 2 year
Reference Zhivlov 2019
Related Languages
Comment The word goes back to Proto-Uto-Aztecan *tɨpV- ‘earth’.
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Maricopa
Lexeme ʔmat ~ mat
Meaning 1 earth
Direction
Meaning 2 year mat a:m‑k
"be a (complete, full) year"
Reference Zhivlov 2019
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Quechan
Lexeme ʔəmaṭ
Meaning 1 land, dirt, clay, territory, place, country, continent
Direction
Meaning 2 year ʔəmaṭa:m‑k ~ maṭa:m‑k
"it is a year; a year passes"
Reference Zhivlov 2019
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Paipai
Lexeme 1 mat
Lexeme 2 matʔamk
Meaning 1 earth
Direction
Meaning 2 year
Reference Zhivlov 2019
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Derivation
Language Cocopa
Lexeme 1 maṭ
Lexeme 2 màṭká·m
Meaning 1 land, ground, floor, country, dirt, earth, (city) lot land, ground, floor, country, dirt, earth, (city) lot
Direction
Meaning 2 year
Reference Zhivlov 2019
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Derivation
Language Ko’alh
Lexeme 1 maṭ̌
Lexeme 2 maṭ̌wam
Meaning 1 land, earth
Direction
Meaning 2 year
Reference Zhivlov 2019
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Derivation
Language Kiliwa
Lexeme 1 ʔmat
Lexeme 2 ʔmatkwhaa
Meaning 1 earth, land, place
Direction
Meaning 2 current year
Reference Zhivlov 2019
Related Languages
Comment ʔmat=kwhaa lit. ‘earth that goes’
Realization
Type Derivation
Language Iipay
Lexeme 1 ʔəmat ~ mat ~ ʔəmaṭ
Lexeme 2 məta:(ʔ)am(p)
Meaning 1 ‘land, earth, ground, dirt, clay
Direction
Meaning 2 year
Reference Zhivlov 2019
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Cochimi
Lexeme ʔ-met ~ ʔ-mat
Meaning 1 earth, place
Direction
Meaning 2 year
Reference Zhivlov 2019
Related Languages
Comment The word is a cognate of Proto-Yuman *ʔmat ‘land, earth’
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Seri
Lexeme hant
Meaning 1 earth, dirt, land
Direction
Meaning 2 year
Reference Zhivlov 2019
Related Languages
Comment This word is used with different definite articles. Combined with the article com ‘horizontal’, it means ‘earth, dirt, land’; with quij ‘compact’ — ‘world, earth’; with hac ‘location’ — ‘place’, with cop/cap ‘vertical; abstract’ — ‘year’. Zhivlov 2019
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Highland Oaxaca Chontal
Lexeme łamatsʼ
Meaning 1 the land, earth
Direction
Meaning 2 year
Reference Zhivlov 2019
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Lowland Oaxaca Chontal
Lexeme amats’
Meaning 1 earth, ground, land, soil
Direction
Meaning 2 year
Reference Zhivlov 2019
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Winnebago
Lexeme
Meaning 1 earth
Direction
Meaning 2 year mądjiregą
"as the years go by, year-by-year"
Reference Zhivlov 2019
Related Languages
Comment mą nųbohanąga ‘to elapse (of years)’, mokahi ‘a number of years’ (mo is an allomorph of mą)
Realization
Type Derivation
Language Lakota
Lexeme 1 makȟá
Lexeme 2 ómakȟa
Meaning 1 earth, ground; dirt, soil, dust
Direction
Meaning 2 a season, a year
Reference Zhivlov 2019
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Yankton-Yanktonai
Lexeme 1 makȟá
Lexeme 2 ómakȟa
Meaning 1 earth, ground; dirt, soil, dust
Direction
Meaning 2 a season, a year
Reference Zhivlov 2019
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Derivation
Language Santee-Sisseton
Lexeme 1 makhá
Lexeme 2 ómakha
Meaning 1 earth, ground; dirt, soil, dust
Direction
Meaning 2 a season, a year
Reference Zhivlov 2019
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Skiri Pawnee
Lexeme huraaru’
Meaning 1 earth
Direction
Meaning 2 season
Reference Zhivlov 2019
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Menominee
Lexeme ahke·w
Meaning 1 earth, land
Direction
Meaning 2 summer, year
Reference Zhivlov 2019
Related Languages
Comment Second meaning is archaic. The word is a reflex of Proto-Algonquian *axkyi ‘land’. While the primary meaning of *axkyi, retained in all reflexes in daughter languages, was ‘land’, traces of the meanings ‘year’ and ‘summer’ are preserved in the Cree derived verbs aski·wan ‘it is earth, summer, year’ and aski·wiw ‘it is earth, summer, year’ (Zhivlov 2019)