Shift #57

boy → servant

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Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Tagalog
Lexeme batà
Meaning 1 child
Direction
Meaning 2 boy servant
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Таг 50
Realization
Type Cognates
Language 1 Ukrainian
Language 2 Polish
Lexeme 1 parubok
Lexeme 2 parobek
Meaning 1 young man, youth
Direction
Meaning 2 labourer
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Also Czech parobek 'slave', vern. 'guy'
Realization
Type Cognates
Language 1 Munji
Language 2 Yidgha
Lexeme 1 idá
Lexeme 2 idã
Meaning 1 young man, youth
Direction
Meaning 2 servant
Reference
Related Languages
Comment ЭСИЯ 3, 102
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Hungarian
Lexeme inas
Meaning 1 boy-disciple
Direction
Meaning 2 valet, servant
Reference
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Old English
Lexeme cnafa
Meaning 1 boy
Direction
Meaning 2 young servant, servant
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Bosworth, Toller 161
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Old English
Lexeme cniht
Meaning 1 boy
Direction
Meaning 2 servant, (young) soldier
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Bosworth, Toller 162-163
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language English
Lexeme boy
Meaning 1 boy
Direction
Meaning 2 boy (errand boy, boy servant in the East)
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Cf. Also the Fr. garçon 'a boy waiter in a cafe'
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Old Slavonic
Lexeme отрокъ
Meaning 1 boy
Direction
Meaning 2 servant, servant boy
Reference Старославянский словарь. М., 1999, 424.
Related Languages
Comment Cf. also отрiк 'worker', Bulg. отрок 'boy', Old Serb отрокъ 'under age' etc. See Фасмер III, 172, Копечный 1968
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Old East Slavic
Lexeme отрокъ
Meaning 1 boy, teenager Оброшеныę въ огни отрокы (Остромирово Ев., л.245)
"boys thrown into the fire (Ostromir Gospels, p. 245)"
Direction
Meaning 2 slave И рече къ wтрокомъ своимъ: къторый wт васъ слоужити емоу хощеть, да аще оугодить емоу, живъ Гь, яко свободьнъ боудеть. Златостр.д. 1200 г.
Reference Срезневский, II, 764
Related Languages
Comment The Old Rus. отрокъ means also 'soldier': Пристрои Ратиборъ wтрокы въ wружьи (Повесть временных лет, 6603 г.)
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language 1 Bulgarian
Language 2 Old Slavonic
Lexeme 1 hlape
Lexeme 2 хлапъ
Meaning 1 boy
Direction
Meaning 2 servant, slave
Reference Фасмер, IV, 257.
Related Languages
Comment Cf. Also the Pol. сhłор, High Lus. khłор, khłорс "guy", Bulg. хлапе Mid. Rus., хлапак "boy" (Фасмер 4,257) Pol. сhłорiес "boy" (Фасмер, 4, 245). Rus. Холоп
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Latin
Lexeme puer
Meaning 1 child, baby; boy
Direction
Meaning 2 young servant, slave
Reference Дворецкий И.Х., Латинско-русский словарь. М., 1976
Related Languages
Comment Glare 1514-1515
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Ancient Greek
Lexeme παῖς
Meaning 1 child, baby
Direction
Meaning 2 young slave
Reference LSJ
Related Languages
Comment LSJ 1289
Realization
Type Cognates
Language 1 German
Language 2 English
Lexeme 1 Knabe
Lexeme 2 knave
Meaning 1 boy
Direction
Meaning 2 swindler, rogue
Reference Смирницкий А.И. Хрестоматия по истории английского языка с VII по XVII в. М., 1998, 153
Related Languages
Comment The Engl. knave can be traced back to the Old Engl. сnafa 'boy, young servant, servant'.
Realization
Type Cognates
Language 1 Old English
Language 2 German
Lexeme 1 cniht
Lexeme 2 Knecht
Meaning 1 boy, servant
Direction
Meaning 2 servant
Reference Смирницкий А.И. Хрестоматия по истории английского языка с VII по XVII в. М., 1998
Related Languages
Comment Old Engl. cniht ‘boy, servant, (young) soldier’ >Mod. Engl. knight
Realization
Type Borrowing
Language 1 Azeri
Language 2 Kyrghyz
Lexeme 1 malay
Lexeme 2 малай
Meaning 1 young man, boy, youth
Direction
Meaning 2 knave, servant, laborer
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Cf. also the Tatar малай 'child; son'
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Azeri
Lexeme gәdә
Meaning 1 boy
Direction
Meaning 2 servant
Reference
Related Languages
Comment АзРС 102
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Armenian
Lexeme tła
Meaning 1 boy
Direction
Meaning 2 servant
Reference
Related Languages
Comment АрмРС 660
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Spanish
Lexeme muchacho
Meaning 1 boy, youth
Direction
Meaning 2 servant
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Narumov 1995: 518
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language French
Lexeme garçon
Meaning 1 boy Filles et garçons vont dans les mêmes écoles.
"Girls and boys go to the same schools."
Direction
Meaning 2 servant (obs.), waiter donner un pourboire au garçon
"to tip the waiter"
Reference CNRTL
Related Languages
Comment Originally, the direction of the shift was inverse: in Old French, the word garçon meant 'servant' [Sakhno 2009: 311]
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Mandarin Chinese
Lexeme tóng
Meaning 1 teenager, child, under age
Direction
Meaning 2 servant
Reference
Related Languages
Comment БКРС 707
Realization
Type Borrowing
Language 1 Old East Slavic
Language 2 Komi
Lexeme челядь
Meaning 1 valetry, servants
Direction
Meaning 2 children челядьöс доръян йöзкоста лун
"International Children's Day"
Reference
Related Languages
Comment КомиРС, 695-696
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Icelandic
Lexeme piltur
Meaning 1 young man, youth; boy
Direction
Meaning 2 worker, labourer
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Берков
Realization
Type Derivation
Language Khmer
Lexeme 1 ko:n
Lexeme 2 ko:n-khmuəy
Meaning 1 child
Direction
Meaning 2 servants
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Gorgoniev 1984, 66
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Romanian
Lexeme băiat
Meaning 1 boy
Direction
Meaning 2 valet băiat de casă
"valet, "boy""
Reference DEX98
Related Languages
Comment DRRS 1, 211, DEX98
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Fula
Lexeme gorel
Meaning 1 young boy
Direction
Meaning 2 servant
Reference
Related Languages
Comment ФРФС 202
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Classical Arabic
Lexeme ġulām-
Meaning 1 a young man, youth, boy, or male child
Direction
Meaning 2 a male slave
Reference
Related Languages
Comment (Lane 2286-87).
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Geez
Lexeme daḳiḳ
Meaning 1 child, son; children (coll.) daḳiḳa ʔaron 'sons of Aaron'
Direction
Meaning 2 servant daḳiḳu la-nəguś (Esth. 2:2) 'the king's servants'
Reference
Related Languages
Comment (LGz. 140; LLA 1100).
Realization
Type Derivation
Language Chaha
Lexeme 1 dängʸa
Lexeme 2 yäbet dängʸa
Meaning 1 boys yagdatɛ yädängʸa mädäru 'the area of the partition is the children's'; dängʸa tägred 'boys and girls'
Direction
Meaning 2 servants and slaves of the family (lit. children of the house) yäčbɛmma yäbet dängʸa yədgataropʷä 'as for the section of the central pillar, the servants sleep in it
Reference
Related Languages
Comment (LGur. I 44; Leslau 1983:40, 45)
Realization
Type Cognates
Language 1 Tigrinya
Language 2 Geez
Lexeme 1 ḳolʕa
Lexeme 2 ḳʷəlʕe
Meaning 1 child, kid, infant
Direction
Meaning 2 servant, domestic
Reference
Related Languages
Comment (KT 900; LLA 414; LGz. 426). LGz. 426 reports for Geez the meaning A as well, but this meaning is not given in LLA
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Ancient Hebrew
Lexeme naʕar
Meaning 1 lad, adolescent; young man naʕar ḳaṭōn ‘a little boy’ (1S 22:35)
Direction
Meaning 2 fellow, servant, attendant naʕǎrē hammelek ‘the servants of the king’ (Est 2:2)
Reference
Related Languages the same polysemy in Ugaritic nʕr (cf. DUL 616)
Comment (HALOT 707)
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Sanskrit
Lexeme kumārá
Meaning 1 boy
Direction
Meaning 2 a groom
Reference MW
Related Languages
Comment MW 292