Shift #

Number of realizations

5

free

can, to be able

Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Yakut
Lexeme кѳҥүл (kɵŋyl)
Meaning 1 freedom, independence
Direction
Meaning 2 permission кѳҥүл ыл- (kɵŋyl ɯl-)
"to get a permission"
Reference S l e p c o v 1 9 7 2 1 7 9
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Hungarian
Lexeme szabad
Meaning 1 free szabad város; szabad ember; Aki börtönben van, az nem szabad
"free city; free person; one who is in prison, is not free."
Direction
Meaning 2 one may (+ inf) ; it is allowed (to inf.) neki nem szabad inni; szabad itt dohányozni?; szabad oda bemenni?
"he is not allowed to drink; is it allowed to smoke here?; is it allowed to go in there?"
Reference G a l d i 1 9 8 7 6 6 8
Related Languages
Comment From Slavic *svobodьnъ 'free' (Church Slavonic свободь (svodogь), Slovene slobod, Bulgarian слободен, Serbo-Croatian slȍbodan, Polish swobodny, Czech svobodný (Zaicz 2006))
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language French
Lexeme libre
Meaning 1 free un paysan libre
"a free peasant"
Direction
Meaning 2 able to do sth. les habitués de la place des Vosges étaient libres de l'apercevoir accoudé à la fenêtre
"the habitués of the Place des Vosges had the possibility to notice him leaning against the window"
Reference C N R T L
Related Languages
Comment Cf. also the obsolete expression Il est libre à qqn de + inf.: 'It is allowed to'
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Dutch
Lexeme vrij
Meaning 1 free vrij zijn
"to be free"
Direction
Meaning 2 can, to be able mag ik zo vrij zijn?
"Can I?"
Reference M i r o n o v 1 9 8 7 7 8 3 - 7 8 4
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Russian
Lexeme 1 вольный (vol'nyj)
Lexeme 2 волен (volen)
Meaning 1 free, independed, not-imprisoned, unrestricted Там были двое заключенных и трое вольных (Tam byli dvoe zaključennyx i troe vol'nyx)
"There were two prisoners and three freemen"
Direction
Meaning 2 having permission or opportunity Вы вольны поступать как считаете нужным. (Vy vol'ny postupat' kak sčitaete nužnym)
"You are free to do as you see fit."
Reference B A S 2 , 6 3 4 - 6 3 6
Related Languages
Comment Second meaning only in short form of an ajective.