Shift #

Number of realizations

7

<foreigner>

slave

Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Mandarin Chinese
Lexeme mán (蛮)
Meaning 1 non-Chinese tribes in southern China; foreigner, barbarian, savage
Direction
Meaning 2 female slave, female servant
Reference BKRS 15254
Related Languages
Comment The second meaning is dialectal. Nanman or Southern Man (Chinese: 南蠻), or the Southern Barbarians, were ancient indigenous peoples who lived in inland South and Southwest China, mainly around the Yangtze River valley. The Nanman included multiple ethnic groups, probably related to the predecessors of the modern Zhuang, Tai, Miao (Hmong) peoples, and non-Chinese Sino-Tibetan groups such as the Bai people. There was never a single polity that united these people, although the state of Chu ruled over much of the Yangtze region during the Zhou dynasty and was heavily influenced by the Man culture. By the 7th century AD, the Nanman had become mixed with the Han Chinese and over time resulted in the modern population of southern China. The early Chinese exonym Man (蠻) was a graphic pejorative written with Radical 142 虫, which means "insect" or "reptile". Xu Shen's (c. 121 CE) Shuowen Jiezi dictionary defines Man as "Southern Man are a snake race. [The character is formed] from [the] insect / serpent [radical and takes its pronunciation from] luàn." William H. Baxter and Laurent Sagart (2014) reconstruct the Old Chinese name of Mán as 蠻 *mˤro[n]. Baxter & Sagart (2014) provide a similar Old Chinese reconstruction for Min 閩 *mrə[n] 'southern tribes', which is also a name for Fujian province. Today, similar-sounding self-designated ethnonyms among modern-day peoples include Mraṅmā, Hmong, Mien, Bru, Mro, Mru, and Maang. The ethnonym Hmong is reconstructed as *hmʉŋA in Proto-Hmongic by Ratliff (2010), while Mien is reconstructed as *mjænA in Proto-Mienic. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nanman
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Swahili
Lexeme mja
Meaning 1 foreigner, stranger
Direction
Meaning 2 slave
Reference Polikanov
Related Languages
Comment Literally 'one who comes, visitor'. From -ja 'come'.
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Medieval Latin
Lexeme sclavus
Meaning 1 Slav
Direction
Meaning 2 slave
Reference du Cange
Related Languages
Comment Neirmeyer, Haprer's Etymonline, Robert historique. From Byzantine Greek Σκλάβος, from Proto-Slavic *slověninъ, because Slavs were often forced into slavery in the Middle Age. Descendants are Italian schiavo, stiavo, Sardinian isciabu, isciau, isclavu, iscrau, iscravu, sciau, Sicilian schiavu, Friulian sclâf, sclâv, Venetian sciavo, s-ciao, Aromanian sclav, sclavu, Asturian esclavu, Catalan esclau, Galician escravo, Middle French sclave, French esclave, Occitan esclau, Portuguese, escravo, Romanian sclav, Spanish esclavo. Borrowed from Latin or French to Albanian shqa and skllav, Breton sklav, Manx sleab, Middle Dutch slave, Dutch slaaf, English slave, Middle High German sklafe, sklave, German Sklave, Danish slave, Norwegian slave.
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Old English
Lexeme wealh
Meaning 1 foreigner (initially Briton or Welshman)
Direction
Meaning 2 slave
Reference Bosworth, Toller 1173-1174
Related Languages
Comment From Proto-Germanic *walhaz, from a Celtic name also represented by Latin Volcae. Having originally apparently referred to a neighboring Celtic tribe, it was broadened to refer to any inhabitant of the Western Roman Empire and then, in Britain, narrowed to refer to native Britons, and later to Welsh people in particular. Owing to the high numbers of native British slaves in some areas, it also came to be used to refer to slaves (Miller 2014)
Realization
Type Borrowing
Language 1 Arin
Language 2 Kott
Lexeme 1 ar
Lexeme 2 arɨn-gɨt
Meaning 1 self-designation
Direction
Meaning 2 slave
Reference Starostin 1995 230
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Fula
Lexeme kaaɗo
Meaning 1 a black person, an African (non-fula), dogon
Direction
Meaning 2 servant, slave (black)
Reference Zubko 1980 285-286
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Amharic
Lexeme barya
Meaning 1 'name of a tribe in north central Eritrea' (Kunama)
Direction
Meaning 2 'slave'
Reference K 890
Related Languages
Comment