Shift #2174

to fear — to respect

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Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Zulu
Lexeme 1 ukwesba
Lexeme 2 ukwesaba
Meaning 1 fear
Direction
Meaning 2 reverence
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Haser 2000, 185
Realization
Type Borrowing
Language Classical Arabic
Lexeme hāba
Meaning 1 'to dread, fear'
Direction
Meaning 2 'to revere, venerate, respect, honour'
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Lane 2909; hence haybat- 'reverence, veneration, respect, honour, dread or awe; fear, caution', which has been borrowed from Arabic in Hausa woba 'misgivings, fear'; see Haser 2000, 185
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Kurux
Lexeme elcnā (ilcyas)
Meaning 1 fear
Direction
Meaning 2 have a reverential awe of, have misgivings
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Haser 2000, 185
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Indonesian
Lexeme takut
Meaning 1 fear
Meaning 2 reverence, respect
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Haser 2000, 185
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Nahuatl
Lexeme mahuitzli
Meaning 1 fear
Direction
Meaning 2 person worthy of honor
Reference
Related Languages
Comment mahui 'e fearfl, be afraid, inspire fear or reverence, be glorious'
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Swahili
Lexeme cha
Meaning 1 to fear, to be afraid, to be frightened
Direction
Meaning 2 to honour, to respect cha Mungu
"to honour God"
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Polikanov
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Marshallese
Lexeme lʌļŋɒŋ
Meaning 1 fear, fright
Direction
Meaning 2 awe
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Haser 2000, 185
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Egyptian
Lexeme nrw
Meaning 1 terror, fear
Direction
Meaning 2 awe
Reference
Related Languages
Comment nrj 'frighten, respect'
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Turkish
Lexeme perva
Meaning 1 fear
Direction
Meaning 2 respect, esteem
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Haser 2000, 185
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Tzotzil
Lexeme xi(c)
Meaning 1 be afraid of, fear
Direction
Meaning 2 honor, respect, revere
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Haser 2000, 185
Realization
Type Derivation
Language German
Lexeme 1 fürchten
Lexeme 2 Ehrfurcht
Meaning 1 to fear, to be afraid
Direction
Meaning 2 awe, honour
Reference
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Latin
Lexeme vereror, -ēri
Meaning 1 to fear, to be afraid
Direction
Meaning 2 to respect, to honour vereri deos, vereri parentes
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Haser 2000, 185, Glare 2035-2036
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Geez
Lexeme farha
Meaning 1 be afraid, fear
Direction
Meaning 2 to revere ʔaḥadu ʔaḥadu ʔəmənnekəmu yəfrāh ʔabāhu wa-ʔəmmo
"Each one of you should respect your father and your mother (Lev 19:3)"
Reference
Related Languages
Comment farāhi 'fearful, reverent'
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Sumerian
Lexeme ní-te
Meaning 1 be overhelmed by fear, fear
Direction
Meaning 2 revere
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Haser 2000, 185
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Khmer
Lexeme sɲaeŋ
Meaning 1 to fear, to be scared
Direction
Meaning 2 to esteem, to respect
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Presumably it is related genetically to sɲaep 'to be afraid'. Gorgoniev 1984, 748-749