Shift #34

to hear / to listen → to obey

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Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Korean
Lexeme tut-
Meaning 1 to hear
Direction
Meaning 2 to obey
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Haser 2000, 176
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Swahili
Lexeme sikia
Meaning 1 hear
Direction
Meaning 2 obey
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Haser 2000, 176
Realization
Type Derivation
Language Latin
Lexeme audire
Meaning 1 listen, hear
Direction
Meaning 2 obey, pay attention to
Reference Glare
Related Languages
Comment Also both meanings in derivative oboedire [ob + audire]. From oboedio are descended Italian ubbidire and obbedire, Friulian ubidî, Old French obeir (Modern French obéir). Old French > Anglo-Norman obeir, obeier > Middle English obeyen > Modern English obey. Spanish and Portugal obedecer from Vulgar Latin *oboedescere, present active infinitive of *oboedesceō, from Latin oboedire.
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Tzotzil
Lexeme ʻaʻik`op
Meaning 1 hear words
Direction
Meaning 2 be obedient
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Haser 2000, 176
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Farsi
Lexeme шенäваи
Meaning 1 hearing шенäвäнде
"listener"
Direction
Meaning 2 obedience
Reference
Related Languages
Comment ПРС 519.
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Romanian
Lexeme a asculta
Meaning 1 to listen a asculta o operă
"to listen to an opera"
Direction
Meaning 2 to obey a asculta de părinţi, a asculta orbeşte
"to obey parents, to follow like sheep"
Reference DEX98
Related Languages
Comment DRRS 1, 142, DEX98
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Djabugay
Lexeme bina warray
Meaning 1 ear bad
Direction
Meaning 2 disobedient
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Haser 2000, 176
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Erzya
Lexeme кунсоломс
Meaning 1 to listen
Direction
Meaning 2 to obey кунсоломс ялгань советэнть
"to follow a friend's advice"
Reference
Related Languages
Comment ЭрзРС 315
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Hausa
Lexeme ji
Meaning 1 heard
Direction
Meaning 2 obeyed
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Haser 2000, 176
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Telugu
Lexeme vinu
Meaning 1 hear
Direction
Meaning 2 obey
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Haser 2000, 176
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Zulu
Lexeme zwa
Meaning 1 hear
Direction
Meaning 2 obey
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Haser 2000, 176
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Yukaghir
Lexeme мөри-
Meaning 1 to hear
Direction
Meaning 2 to obey
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Аникин 2000, 497
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Geez
Lexeme samʕa
Meaning 1 hear, hear of ba-kama samāʕkəmu ba-ʔəzani-kəmu 'as you heard with your ears' (LLA 336)
Direction
Meaning 2 obey, be obedient ʔi-samʕu ḥəggo 'they did not obey his law' (LLA 337)
Reference
Related Languages For Arabic and Accadian cf. other examples in the same shift. Cf. also Jewish Aramaic šmʕ 'to hear; to obey' (Sokoloff JPA 558).
Comment (LGz. 501).
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Arabic
Lexeme samiʕa
Meaning 1 'écouter, entendre quelque chose' samiʕtu lahu ṣawt-an
"'I heard him utter, or produce, a sound' [Lane 1527]"
Direction
Meaning 2 'écouter quelqu'un, lui obéir' ʔinnī ʔāmantu bi-rabb-i-kum fa-smaʕū-ni
"'I believe in your Lord, and do ye obey me' [Lane 1427]"
Reference [BK I 1139]
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Akkadian
Lexeme šemû
Meaning 1 'to hear, to listen' [CAD II 277] petâma ul i-šem-ma-a uznāja
"'my ears are open but cannot hear' [CAD II 277]"
Direction
Meaning 2 'to comply, to obey' [CAD II 277] mimma ša tašapparu annikīam ḳubītka ša-me-am eleʔi
"'whatever you may order, I, here, am able to obey your command' [CAD II 283]"
Reference
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language German
Lexeme hören
Meaning 1 to hear, to listen
Direction
Meaning 2 to obey auf j-n hören
"to obey to smn"
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Also horchen 'to listen' and gehorchen 'to obey'
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Macedonian
Lexeme sluša
Meaning 1 to hear, to listen
Direction
Meaning 2 to obey
Reference
Related Languages
Comment [Толовски, Иллич-Свитыч 1963: 468]. The same in Serb.-Cr.
Realization
Type Derivation
Language Russian
Lexeme 1 slušat'
Lexeme 2 slušat'sja
Meaning 1 to listen
Direction
Meaning 2 to obey
Reference
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Latin
Lexeme audire
Meaning 1 to listen, to hear Saepe hoc majores natu dicere audivi.
"I used to hear it from elder people."
Direction
Meaning 2 to obey currus non audit habenas.
"chariot doesn't obey the reins."
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Dvoretsky 1976: 115
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Archi
Lexeme oj ačas
Meaning 1 to hear / to listen
Direction
Meaning 2 to obey
Reference Kibrik et al. (eds.) 1977 287
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Chamalal
Lexeme woɬuk'la
Meaning 1 to hear / to listen
Meaning 2 to obey
Reference П.Т. Магомедова. Чамалинско-русский словарь. Махачкала, 1999. С. 110.
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Yakut
Lexeme ihit-
Meaning 1 to listen, to hear истэрин истибитим
"I did hear him"
Direction
Meaning 2 to obey балта убайын истэр
"The younger sister is listening to the elder brother"
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Аникин 2000, 497
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Ancient Greek
Lexeme ἀκούω
Meaning 1 to listen
Direction
Meaning 2 to obey ἀκούει οὐδὲν οὐδεὶς οὐδενός
"Nobody is subject to no one not in one thing"
Reference LSJ
Related Languages
Comment LSJ 53-54. Also derivatives εἰσακούω, ἐσακούω, ἐπακούω, κατακούω, ὑπακούω with both meanings.
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Tuvan
Lexeme дыңна-
Meaning 1 to listen, to hear
Direction
Meaning 2 to obey
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Cf. also. The Karaim. Тынъла- id. КРПС 558.
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Even
Lexeme долдъ-
Meaning 1 to listen
Direction
Meaning 2 to obey
Reference
Related Languages
Comment The same in Evenki, Nanai, in Jurchen it is the derived verb that has meaning B. In Ulcha and Orok there is only meaning A, but there are derived words meaning 'obedient'. ТМС 1, 214-215
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Gagauz
Lexeme sesle-
Meaning 1 to listen
Direction
Meaning 2 to heed (smn's advice)
Reference
Related Languages
Comment ГРМС 413.
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Nganasan
Lexeme дильситiси
Meaning 1 to listen
Direction
Meaning 2 to obey
Reference
Related Languages
Comment НМС 436
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Mandarin Chinese
Lexeme tīng
Meaning 1 to listen
Direction
Meaning 2 to obey
Reference
Related Languages
Comment БКРС 14510
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Nahuatl
Lexeme caqui
Meaning 1 hear
Direction
Meaning 2 obey
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Haser 2000, 176
Realization
Type Derivation
Language Gugu-yimidjir
Lexeme 1 milga
Lexeme 2 milga-dhirr
Meaning 1 ear
Direction
Meaning 2 obedient
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Haser 2000, 176
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Sogdian
Lexeme ptγwš-
Meaning 1 to hear
Direction
Meaning 2 to obey
Reference
Related Languages
Comment ЭСИЯ 3, 248
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Turkish
Lexeme dinlemek
Meaning 1 listen to, hear
Direction
Meaning 2 obey
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Haser 2000, 176
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Japanese
Lexeme kiku (聞く)
Meaning 1 hear 彼らはそのニュースを聞いて驚いた
"They were surprised to hear the news."
Direction
Meaning 2 obey hito-no iu koto-o kikanai
"not to take other people into account, not to listen to other people's advice"
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Haser 2000, 176
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Koryak
Lexeme валомык
Meaning 1 to listen
Direction
Meaning 2 to obey
Reference
Related Languages
Comment КорРС 13
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Manchu
Lexeme donjibu-
Meaning 1 let someone hear
Direction
Meaning 2 obey
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Haser 2000, 176
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Egyptian
Lexeme sdm
Meaning 1 hear
Direction
Meaning 2 obey
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Haser 2000, 176
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Paamese
Lexeme loŋe
Meaning 1 hear
Direction
Meaning 2 obey
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Haser 2000, 176
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Kiribati
Lexeme oŋo taeka
Meaning 1 hear the word
Direction
Meaning 2 obey
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Haser 2000, 176
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Kaulong
Lexeme hul ßet
Meaning 1 hear under
Direction
Meaning 2 obey
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Haser 2000, 176
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Tamil
Lexeme kēl
Meaning 1 hear
Direction
Meaning 2 obey
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Haser 2000, 176
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Finnish
Lexeme kuulla
Meaning 1 hear
Direction
Meaning 2 obey
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Haser 2000, 176
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Buru
Lexeme čaa-n
Meaning 1 hear
Direction
Meaning 2 obey
Reference
Related Languages
Comment Haser 2000, 176
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Maori
Lexeme whakarongo
Meaning 1 to hear / to listen
Direction
Meaning 2 to obey
Reference MD
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Czech
Lexeme 1 poslouchat
Lexeme 2 poslouchat
Meaning 1 to hear / to listen
Direction
Meaning 2 to obey
Reference Глазунов 2003
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Latin
Lexeme auscultare
Meaning 1 to hear / to listen (esp. attentively)
Direction
Meaning 2 to obey
Reference Glare
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Ancient Greek
Lexeme ἀΐω
Meaning 1 to hear / to listen
Direction
Meaning 2 to obey
Reference LSJ
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Ancient Greek
Lexeme ἀκροάομαι
Meaning 1 to hear / to listen
Direction
Meaning 2 to obey
Reference LSJ
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Ancient Greek
Lexeme κλύω
Meaning 1 to hear, to give ear to, to attend to
Direction
Meaning 2 to obey “θυγατρὶ φίλῃ μάλα μὲν κλύον
"(they) obeyed their dear daughter"
Reference LSJ
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Derivation
Language Komi
Lexeme 1 кывзыны
Lexeme 2 кывзысьны
Meaning 1 to hear / to listen радио кывзыны
"listen to the radio"
Direction
Meaning 2 to obey кывзысьны гырысьяслысь
"obey the elders"
Reference КомиРС
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Mansi
Lexeme хӯнтлуӈкве
Meaning 1 to hear / to listen
Direction
Meaning 2 to obey
Reference Afanas'eva, Sobjanina 2012
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Mari
Lexeme колышташ
Meaning 1 to hear / to listen шӱшпык мурым колышташ
"listen to nightingale singing"
Direction
Meaning 2 to obey Тудын (Толян) ачаже уке. Мӧҥгыштӧ аважым ок колышт.
"Tolya has no father. At home, he does not obey his mother."
Reference Marij jylme muter
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Udmurt
Lexeme кылзыны
Meaning 1 to hear / to listen
Direction
Meaning 2 to obey
Reference УдмРС
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Beja
Lexeme maasiw
Meaning 1 to hear, perceive
Direction
Meaning 2 to heed
Reference Vanhove 2008 347
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Beja
Lexeme sinaakir
Meaning 1 to listen
Direction
Meaning 2 to obey
Reference Vanhove 2008 347
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Greenlandic Inuit
Lexeme naala(k)
Meaning 1 to listen
Direction
Meaning 2 to obey
Reference Vanhove 2008 347
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Tamang
Lexeme 1ngjan-pa
Meaning 1 to listen
Direction
Meaning 2 to obey
Reference Vanhove 2008 347
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Bodoe
Lexeme zéi
Meaning 1 to listen
Direction
Meaning 2 to follow advice
Reference Vanhove 2008 353
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Derivation
Language Russian
Lexeme 1 слушать
Lexeme 2 слушаться
Meaning 1 to listen
Direction
Meaning 2 to obey
Reference Sweetser 1990 35
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Eastern Canadian Inuktitut
Lexeme naalak
Meaning 1 to hear / to listen
Direction
Meaning 2 to obey
Reference Vanhove 2008 347
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Pitjantjatjara
Lexeme kulini
Meaning 1 to hear / to listen
Direction
Meaning 2 to heed
Reference Evans, Wilkins 2000 563
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Wik-Mungkan
Lexeme ngeeyan
Meaning 1 to hear / to listen
Direction
Meaning 2 to obey
Reference Evans, Wilkins 2000 567
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Lardil
Lexeme merri
Meaning 1 to hear / to listen
Direction
Meaning 2 to obey, pay heed to
Reference Evans, Wilkins 2000 567
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Kukatja
Lexeme kulila
Meaning 1 to hear / to listen
Direction
Meaning 2 to obey
Reference Evans, Wilkins 2000 569
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Pintupi-Luritja
Lexeme kulinu
Meaning 1 to hear
Direction
Meaning 2 to obey
Reference Evans, Wilkins 2000 569
Related Languages
Comment