Number of realizations

45

wild, untamed

wild (of a person)

Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Russian
Lexeme дикий (dikij)
Meaning 1 wild дикая утка
"wild duck"
Direction
Meaning 2 rude, ill-bred, vulgar дикий нрав, дикая выходка
"wild character, wild act"
Reference <personally collected data>
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Ancient Greek
Lexeme ἄγριος
Meaning 1 wild ἄγριος αἶξ
"wild goat"
Direction
Meaning 2 uncontrollable, rude ἄγριος ὀργή
"uncontrollable anger"
Reference LSJ page 15
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Modern Written Arabic
Lexeme waḥšiyy-
Meaning 1 wild, untamed
Direction
Meaning 2 brutish, savage, barbarious, uncivilized
Reference Wehr page 1238
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Ukrainian
Lexeme дикий
Meaning 1 wild, untamed дика коза; І звір того не зробить дикий, Що ви, б'ючи поклони, З братами дієте... (Тарас Шевченко)
"wild goat, "And the wild beast will not do what you, bending bows, Do with brothers ...""
Direction
Meaning 2 wild (of a person) В серці бідного молдувана надія боролась з жадобою дикої помсти (Михайло Коцюбинський)
"In the heart of the poor Moldovan hope struggled with the thirst for savage revenge"
Reference SUM-11
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Belarusan
Lexeme гнеў
Meaning 1 wild, untamed дзікая гусь
"wild goose"
Direction
Meaning 2 wild (of a person) дзікі гнеў
"wild anger"
Reference Slounik.org
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Spanish
Lexeme salvaje
Meaning 1 wild, untamed ganso salvaje
"wild goose"
Direction
Meaning 2 (about a person) wild; rude
Reference Narumov 1995
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Spanish
Lexeme montaraz
Meaning 1 wild (of animal)
Direction
Meaning 2 wild, rough (i.e. not quite civilized)
Reference Narumov 1995
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Spanish
Lexeme cimarrón
Meaning 1 feral (having returned to the wild) med Y entonces comprendí que así como el caballo americano, lo mismo que el toro, que corre libre por montes y llanos, no es el caballo salvaje, sino el caballo cimarrón, el caballo doméstico vuelto a la vida bravía y salvaje, […] (Miguel de Unamuno, Nelson R. Orringer, Americanidad)
"And then I realised that, like the american horse, and the same for the bull, that runs free around the mountains and plains, isn’t the wild horse, but rather the feral horse, the domestic horse that returned to a wild and savage life, […]"
Direction
Meaning 2 (about a person) wild; rude
Reference Narumov 1995
Related Languages
Comment Latin America
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Italian
Lexeme selvaggio
Meaning 1 wild, untamed animali selvaggi
"wild animals"
Direction
Meaning 2 rude, ill-mannered
Reference Zor'ko et al. 2002
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Italian
Lexeme selvatico
Meaning 1 wild, untamed
Direction
Meaning 2 rude
Reference Zor'ko et al. 2002
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language German
Lexeme wild
Meaning 1 wild, untamed ein wild es Schwein
"wild boar"
Direction
Meaning 2 wild (of a person) wild werden
"to go wild"
Reference Moskal'skaja (ed.) 2001
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Portuguese
Lexeme selvagem
Meaning 1 wild, untamed
Direction
Meaning 2 ill-mannered, rude
Reference Feerštejn Starec 2005
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language French
Lexeme sauvage
Meaning 1 wild, untamed animaux sauvages
"wild animals"
Direction
Meaning 2 wild (of a person) mœurs sauvages
"savage manners"
Reference NFRS
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Meadow Mari
Lexeme ир
Meaning 1 wild, untamed – Палет, илемна воктен, келге коремыште, лузга межан ир тага коштеш… (Ким Васин)
"- Do you know, near our village, in a deep ravine, lives a wild ram"
Direction
Meaning 2 wild (of a person) Ир койыш
"wild temper"
Reference Marij jylme muter
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Mandarin Chinese
Lexeme yě (野)
Meaning 1 wild, untamed Yě dào (野稻), yě gǒu (野狗)
"wild rice; wild dog, dingo"
Direction
Meaning 2 rude, uncivilized, uncouth (also self-deprecating "mine"), savage, barbaric; unbridled, unbridled; naughty, headstrong, wayward; rampant; restive Cǐ fēi jūnzǐ zhī yán, qí dōng yěrén zhī yǔ yě (此非君子之言, 齐东野人之语也); Fàngle jī tiān jiǎ, xīn dōu wán yěle (放了机天假, 心都玩野了)
"This is not the words of a gentleman, but the words of the villain Eastern Qi; completely spoiled for a few days of vacation"
Reference BKRS
Related Languages
Comment 'countryside; field; outskirts; wilderness plain; open country; open space area; region; boundary'. Phono-semantic compound: semantic 田 'field' + semantic 土 'earth' + phonetic 予 (OC *la, *laʔ). From a hypothetical common Sino-Tibetan *la 'area far from settlements; wilderness': compare Tibetan la 'mountain pass; hillside; mountainslope' (Schuessler, 2007); possibly related to Proto-Mon-Khmer *laʔ 'to spread, extend': Khmer liə 'to unfold, spread, open out' (Schuessler, 2007); or from a Sino-Tibetan root meaning 'hut; pantry': compare Tibetan lhas 'pen; fold; cattle enclosure' (Starostin). Also Mandarin Chinese yěmāo (野猫) 'wild cat', 'unbridled, rude'.
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Latin
Lexeme agrestis
Meaning 1 not tamed or domesticated (of animals)
Direction
Meaning 2 boorish, coarse, clumsy, uncivilizated; also unsophisticated, simple (of persons; of speech, behaviour, qualities etc.)
Reference Glare page 90-91
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Latin
Lexeme ferus
Meaning 1 undomesticated, not tame, wild
Direction
Meaning 2 uncivilized, barbarous, rude, rough; not amenable to restraint, disobedient, unruly; high-spirited, unsubdued; aggresive, fierce, ferocious, warlike; savage; cruel, ruthless, inhuman
Reference Glare page 692-693
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Burmese
Lexeme yáĩ
Meaning 1 wild; untamed
Direction
Meaning 2 rude, uncouth, uncivilized; inexperienced, unfamiliar
Reference SEAlang Burmrse
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Hiligaynon
Lexeme ilá
Meaning 1 not domestic, undomesticated, untamed, not tame; to be or become wild, etc iláhas
"the wild chicken"
Direction
Meaning 2 wild, savage, ferocious
Reference SEAlang Hiligaynon
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Indonesian
Lexeme angkara
Meaning 1 wild (of an animal)
Direction
Meaning 2 cruel, furious, savage; insolent, violent (especially towards a woman); greedy, covetous, selfish; egotistical, self-centered
Reference SEALang Indonesia
Related Languages
Comment From Sanskrit
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Indonesian
Lexeme binal
Meaning 1 wild, undomesticated, untamed (of horses and other animals)
Direction
Meaning 2 disobedient (of children), refusing to obey, insubordinate; naughty (eyes); obstinate, stubborn
Reference SEALang Indonesia
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Indonesian
Lexeme liar
Meaning 1 wild, untamed, undomesticated
Direction
Meaning 2 uncivilized, uncultured, primitive, barbaric, savage, wild; illegal, unlawful, outlawed, unauthorized; irregular
Reference SEALang Indonesia
Related Languages
Comment meliarkan 'to drive someone wild'; 'to free (a domesticated animal in the jungle in order to increase the jungle population of that species), to return (an animal) to the wild'.
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Javanese
Lexeme bandhol
Meaning 1 (of horses) wild, untamed
Direction
Meaning 2 impolite, insolent
Reference SEAlang Javanese
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Ancient Greek
Lexeme ἀγριαίνω
Meaning 1 to be or become wild
Direction
Meaning 2 to be angered, be provoked
Reference LSJ
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Ancient Greek
Lexeme ἔνθηρος
Meaning 1 full of wild beasts, haunted, infested by them
Direction
Meaning 2 metaph., wild, rough
Reference LSJ
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Classical Armenian
Lexeme gazan (գազան)
Meaning 1 wild predatory beast
Direction
Meaning 2 (figuratively) brutal, beastly man
Reference Petrosean Matatʿeay 1879
Related Languages
Comment Modern Armenian gazan (գազան) wild beast; (figuratively) brute, cruel man; adj. brutal, bestial; atrocious, savage. An Iranian borrowing: compare Middle Persian gzytn (gazīdan), Persian‎ gazidan 'to bite, sting',‎ gazân 'biting'.
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language English
Lexeme feral
Meaning 1 (especially of an animal) in a wild state, especially after escape from captivity or domestication
Direction
Meaning 2 resembling a wild animal
Reference ODE
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language English
Lexeme wild
Meaning 1 (of an animal or plant) living or growing in the natural environment; not domesticated or cultivated
Direction
Meaning 2 (of sea or the weather) rough and stormy; (of people) not civilized; primitive; (of a look, appearance, etc.) indicating distraction or strong emotion; lacking discipline or restraint; (informal) very enthusiastic or excited; (informal) very angry
Reference ODE
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language French
Lexeme féroce
Meaning 1 (of animals, especially wild animals) who has the instinct to kill or attack humans or other animals; which is deemed naturally cruel
Direction
Meaning 2 bloodthirsty, cruel, brutal; which denotes fury, harshness, intransigence;
Reference CNRTL
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Modern Greek
Lexeme άγριος
Meaning 1 (of animals) undomesticated, untamed, feral, wild
Direction
Meaning 2 primitive, uncivilized; characterized by hardness and habit; (exp.) with the savage, with cruelty or with aggression; which we can hardly control or subdue; characterized by high intensity (usually unpleasant)
Reference DSMG
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Meadow Mari
Lexeme янлык
Meaning 1 animal
Direction
Meaning 2 very cruel, ferocious person
Reference Marij jylme muter
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Brazilian Portuguese
Lexeme bagual
Meaning 1 an untamed horse
Direction
Meaning 2 uncouth; crude (of a person)
Reference <personally collected data>
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Portuguese
Lexeme bravio
Meaning 1 feral, wild
Direction
Meaning 2 uneducated, uncivilized
Reference Feerštejn Starec 2005
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Portuguese
Lexeme fero
Meaning 1 wild, predatory
Direction
Meaning 2 rustic, uncultivated
Reference Feerštejn Starec 2005
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Romanian
Lexeme bestie
Meaning 1 beast, wild animal
Direction
Meaning 2 a cruel, fierce man
Reference DEX98
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Turkish
Lexeme vahşi
Meaning 1 predator (animal)
Direction
Meaning 2 uncivilized, uncultured; (metaphor) rude, disrespectful, unfit
Reference TDKS
Related Languages
Comment From Arabian waḥš 'wild animal'
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Azerbaijani
Lexeme vəhşi
Meaning 1 wild, untamed (of animals)
Direction
Meaning 2 at the level of primitive culture, uncivilized; strange, ridiculous; unbridled, frantic, indomitable (of emotions etc.); rude, not characteristic of a cultured society, backward; barbaric, cruel
Reference ARL 2006 page 750
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Bulgarian
Lexeme див
Meaning 1 wild, untamed диво животно
"wild animal"
Direction
Meaning 2 (figuratively) savage, barbaric, uncivilized; rough, furious
Reference <personally collected data>
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Czech
Lexeme bestie
Meaning 1 wild, predatory, evil animal; beast, predator
Direction
Meaning 2 (about violent emotional movements) inhuman, ruthless predation, cruelty, sensuality; (about people) insensitive, ruthless, evil man; savage, cruel
Reference SSJČ
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Czech
Lexeme divoký
Meaning 1 wild, untamed (about animals)
Direction
Meaning 2 uncivilized; disordered, unmodified, uneven; conspicuous, eccentric; undisciplined, unrestrained, unbound, sharp, lush, passionate, unbridled
Reference SSJČ
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Czech
Lexeme divý
Meaning 1 untamed, wild divá zvěř
"wild animal"
Direction
Meaning 2 wild, furious, furious, passionate; passionately longing; eager, obsessed
Reference SSJČ
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Norwegian
Lexeme vill
Meaning 1 wild, untamed temme en vill hest
"to tame a wild horse"
Direction
Meaning 2 wild (of a person) ville barn
"wild kids"
Reference BO
Related Languages
Comment Cf. also the derivative vilter 'unstable, uncontrollable'
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Danish
Lexeme vild
Meaning 1 wild, untamed vilde dyr
"wild animals"
Direction
Meaning 2 wild (of a person) vild panik, vildt forelsket
"mad panic, madly in love"
Reference DDO
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Swedish
Lexeme vild
Meaning 1 wild, untamed vilda djur
"wild animals"
Direction
Meaning 2 wild (of a person) vilda ungar
"wild youth"
Reference SAO
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Icelandic
Lexeme villtur
Meaning 1 wild, untamed
Direction
Meaning 2 wild (of a person) hann var miklu villtari áður en hann fór í háskólann
"he was much more unstable before he entered the university"
Reference ISLEX
Related Languages
Comment