to suffer to work 21 realizations
ACCEPTED Realization 1
Type Polysemy
Language Yakut
Lexeme эрэй-
Meaning 1 suffering, torment, torture эрэй бөҕөнү көрдө
'He has suffered a lot'
Meaning 2 hard labour окко мин эрэйим эмиэ барбыта
'in the process of hay making'
Reference Slepcov 1972: 546
ACCEPTED Realization 2
Type Derivation
Language Tigrinya
Lexeme 1 ṣäʕarä
Lexeme 2 täṣäʕarä
Meaning 1 to be in agony, to be in the death throes; to moan, groan
Meaning 2 to toil, work hard, strive, to exert oneself
Reference TED: 2603
Comment The verb täṣäʕarä has also the meaning 'to be in labor (woman)' (TED 2603).
ACCEPTED Realization 3
Type Polysemy
Language French
Lexeme peine
Meaning 1 work homme de peine, peine perdue
'manual worker, vain work'
Meaning 2 grief, suffering éprouver de la peine
'to suffer, to grief'
Reference BFRS
Comment The main meanig of Modern French peine is 'punishment, penalty'. The word came from Old French peine 'pain, suffering', from Latin poena 'penalty, punishment', from Ancient Greek ποινή 'penalty, fine'. The same in Italian pena 'punishment', 'suffering', 'labour, toil'
ACCEPTED Realization 4
Type Polysemy
Language Uzbek
Lexeme zahmat
Meaning 1 labour
Meaning 2 suffering, trial, difficulty
Reference Azizov, Rezaeva 1989
ACCEPTED Realization 5
Type Derivation
Language Spanish
Lexeme 1 trabajo
Lexeme 2 trabajos
Meaning 1 labour, work
Meaning 2 sufferings, torments
Reference Narumov 1995: 752
Comment The verb trabajar 'to work', (obsolete) 'to suffer' is from Vulgar Latin *tripaliāre, present active infinitive of *tripaliō, from tripalium 'a torture instrument', from Latin tripālis 'that which has three stakes', from tria + pālus. Compare Old French traveillier 'to suffer', French travailler 'to work', Portuguese trabalhar 'to work', Occitan trabalhar 'to work', Catalan treballar 'to work', Galician traballar 'to work; to struggle, to stirve', from French borrowed Italian travagliare 'to trouble, afflict or torment', 'to suffer'. The meaning of 'to suffer' has not been preserved in modern Spanish verb trabajar 'to work'. As transitive verb trabajar can mean 'to work (up); to treat; to process; to cultovate; to break in (horse), to disturb, to worry; to torment'. In Venezuelan Spanish expression estar trabajando keeps the meaning 'to suffer' (Firsova 2007). The substantive trabajo can mean 'suffering' only in plural.
ACCEPTED Realization 6
Type Polysemy
Language Lezgian
Lexeme зегьмет (zehmet)
Meaning 1 labour зегьметдин гьакъи
Meaning 2 hardships, torments; trouble, anxiety зегьмет гун
'to bother, todisturb smn (=to give labour)'
Reference LezgRus: 129
ACCEPTED Realization 7
Type Polysemy
Language Latin
Lexeme labor
Meaning 1 work
Meaning 2 distress, suffering, pain, disease Trojae supremus labor
'the greatest disaster of Ilion (Virgil)'
Reference Glare: 990-992
Comment laboro, laborare 'to work' and 'to be distressed physically, to suffer from strain', 'to be in trouble of difficultes (other than purely phusical, to be distressed)', 'to be adversely affected (by), to suffer (from a defect, disadvantage etc)', 'to suffer from pain or disease'
ACCEPTED Realization 8
Type Polysemy
Language Old East Slavic
Lexeme трудъ
Meaning 1 labour, work къждо же свою мьздоу прииметь противоу своемоу троудоу
'every man shall receive his own reward according to his own labour(1 Corinthians 3:8)'
Meaning 2 difficulty, troble; suffering; grief чръпахутъ ми синее вино с трудомъ смѣшено
'were pouring me blue wine mixed with grief (The Tale of Igor's Campaign)'
Reference : 1007-1008
Comment Also трудъ in Church Slavonic (Sedakova 2005, 363-364, D'jačenko 1899, 736-737). Standart Russian трудиться 'to work', dialectal 'to be ill', 'to suffer a serious illness', 'to suffer before death', 'to experience death agony' (Он доўго, бедной, трудився 'Poor guy, he suffered a long time' Vologda, Dilaktorskij 2006, 511), Belarusan трудование 'effort' (Великого стоило трудования покуль уладзили дело 'It took a lot of effort to settle this') and 'suffering of illness' (Великое выцерпев трудованне, покуль вызыбався от хворобы 'Suffered a great deal of suffering before recovering from disease') Nosovič 1870, 641, труднаваць 'to suffer', трудносць 'indigence, misfortune, trouble, distress', 'suffering of illness', трудзiцця 'to suffer' (Ён месяц трудзiцца са сваей зломаннай нагой 'He has been suffering for a month because of his broken leg') Varłyha 1970, 138. Czech high style trud 'sadness, grief, sorrow', trudný 'sad', truditi 'to sadden (mind, heart), to tire (one's arms, legs)' SSJČ 3, 885
ACCEPTED Realization 9
Type Polysemy
Language Old Slavonic
Lexeme страдати (stradati)
Meaning 1 to work hard, to toil и видѣвъ ѩ страждѫштѩ въ гребениi
'And he saw them toiling in rowing (Mark 6:48)'
Meaning 2 to suffer отрокъ мои лежитъ в дому ослабленъ. лютѣ ѣко страждѧ
'my servant lieth at home sick of the palsy, grievously tormented (Matthew 6:8)'
Reference Cejtlin et al. 1994: 626
Comment Also Standart Russian страдать 'to suffer' and dialectal 'to hay, to mow' Pechora, Karelia (Сухо лето было, хорошо страдать 'Summer was dry, good for haymowing'SRGK 6, 357); страдать, страдовать 'to reap, to crop, to harvest (crops)' Vologda, Dilaktorskij 2006, 483, страдовать 'to work on haymowing or harvesting crops' Ural. Standart Russian страда 'harvest time', figuratively 'hard work, exertion' and dialectal страда 'grief, sorrow, suffering; war' Vologda
ACCEPTED Realization 10
Type Borrowing
Language 1 Old Slavonic
Language 2 Romanian
Lexeme 1 мучити
Lexeme 2 a munci
Meaning 1 to torture
Meaning 2 to work (physical or intellectual); to till the ground, to labour, to work hard; (high style and popular) to bear physical or moral sufferings; to torment
Reference DER: 538
Comment Also muncă 'work; labour' from Slavic *mǫka 'torture, torment' (Old Church Slavonic мѫка, Serbian мука, Bulgarian мъка etc. Derksen 2008, 329, ESSJa 20, 136-138)
ACCEPTED Realization 11
Type Polysemy
Language Karaim
Lexeme öмгяк
Meaning 1 labour, harvest
Meaning 2 torment
Comment КРПС 440.
ACCEPTED Realization 12
Type Polysemy
Language Karaim
Lexeme чэкиш-
Meaning 1 to suffer
Meaning 2 to try, to work hard
Comment КРПС 640.
ACCEPTED Realization 13
Type Polysemy
Language Ancient Greek
Lexeme κάμνω
Meaning 1 to suffer, to be sick, to be in distress
Meaning 2 to work till one drops
ACCEPTED Realization 14
Type Polysemy
Language Syriac
Lexeme ʕamlā
Meaning 1 pain, trouble, weariness
Meaning 2 labour, travail, toil
Reference Payne Smith: 417
ACCEPTED Realization 15
Type Polysemy
Language Ancient Greek
Lexeme πονέω
Meaning 1 to suffer, to be in distress πονέω πλευρὰν γλωχῖνι
'to suffer from an arrow stuck in one's side'
Meaning 2 to work, to be busy πολλὰ πονέω, περὶ λήϊον πονέω
'to work a lot'
Comment 'работать' (Дворецкий), 'work hard' (LSJ) is listed as the first meaning
ACCEPTED Realization 16
Type Polysemy
Language Osetin
Lexeme ūdxar
Meaning 1 torment
Meaning 2 hard, back breaking work
Reference Abaev: 4, 10
ACCEPTED Realization 17
Type Semantic evolution
Language 1 Old French
Language 2 French
Lexeme travail
Meaning 1 suffering, torment
Meaning 2 work (n.) travail manuel
'manual labour'
Reference Sakhno 2009: 225
Comment Old French traveillier 'to suffer' from Vulgar Latin *tripaliāre, present active infinitive of *tripaliō 'to torture; to toil, labor', from tripalium 'torture instrument', from Latin tripālis 'having three stakes'. Compare Franco-Provençal travalyer, Catalan treballar, Portuguese trabalhar and Spanish trabajar (Robert historique 3900).
ACCEPTED Realization 18
Type Polysemy
Language Spanish
Lexeme ñacay
Meaning 1 suffering
Meaning 2 hard work, labour, toil
Reference Firsova 2004
Comment Ecuadorian Spanish. Borrowed from Quechua ñacay 'suffering'
ACCEPTED Realization 19
Type Polysemy
Language Russian
Lexeme мучиться (mučit'sja)
Meaning 1 to suffer
Meaning 2 to work hard (dialectal)
Reference SRNG: 19, 41
Comment Also мука 'suffering' and dialectal 'hard, exhausting work' SRNG 18, 338, мучить 'to torment' and dialectal 'to use in work' (Заступ принесен, я и не мучила его 'Splitter brought, I have not used it' NOS 5, 112)
ACCEPTED Realization 20
Type Semantic evolution
Language 1 Old Irish
Language 2 Irish Gaelic
Lexeme 1 dúad
Lexeme 2 dúa
Meaning 1 suffering
Meaning 2 work
Reference LEIA-D: D-207
Comment from early Goidelic *du-saeth 'heavy suffering, pain'; Modern Irish 'work', 'trouble'. Expression: gan dúa 'no problem'.
ACCEPTED Realization 21
Type Cognates
Language 1 Russian
Language 2 Hungarian
Lexeme 1 мука
Lexeme 2 munka
Meaning 1 suffering, torment
Meaning 2 work alkotó munka
'creative work'
Reference Zaicz 2006
Comment The Hungarian word munka originates from Late Common Slavic (before the loss of nasals) munka 'torture, suffering, pain'. The meaning 'suffering' of the Romanian munča is of Slavic origin, while the meaning 'work' is borrowed from Hungarian [Kniesza 1974]