free of charge vain, in vain 19 realizations
ACCEPTED Realization 1
Type Polysemy
Language Ancient Greek
Lexeme μέλεος
Meaning 1 gratuitious, undeserved
Meaning 2 vain
Reference
Comment LSJ 1096 проверить
NEW Realization 2
Type Polysemy
Language Belarusan
Lexeme дарэмны
Meaning 1 free of charge
Direction
Meaning 2 in vain
Reference Slounik.org
Comment
NEW Realization 3
Type Polysemy
Language Croatian
Lexeme džaba
Meaning 1 free of charge dajem džaba
I give it for free
Direction
Meaning 2 in vain džaba se trudiš, džaba pričaš
you are trying in vain, you are talking in vain
Reference HJP
Comment
NEW Realization 4
Type Polysemy
Language Croatian
Lexeme budava
Meaning 1 free of charge dobit ćeš ostatak iz košare praktički badava
You will have the rest of the products in basket practically for free.
Direction
Meaning 2 in vain badava ga čekaš
You are waiting for him in vain
Reference HJP
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 5
Type Cognates
Language Evenki
Lexeme bosko
Meaning 1 for free, for nothing
Direction
Meaning 2 in vain
Reference
Comment The meanings are distributed between dialects
ACCEPTED Realization 6
Type Polysemy
Language Gagauz
Lexeme dicäba
Meaning 1 for free, for nothing
Direction
Meaning 2 in vain
Reference
Comment ГРМС 141. The polysemic lexeme has been borrowed from Rumanian. Cf. also the form җaба with the same meanings (ГРМС 183).
ACCEPTED Realization 7
Type Polysemy
Language German
Lexeme umsonst
Meaning 1 for free, for nothing
Direction
Meaning 2 in vain
Reference Duden: 777
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 8
Type Polysemy
Language Hausa
Lexeme a banza
Meaning 1 for nothing, for free
Direction
Meaning 2 in vain
Reference
Comment Хауса 12
ACCEPTED Realization 9
Type Polysemy
Language Komi
Lexeme прöста
Meaning 1 for free прöста босьтны
to take for free
Direction
Meaning 2 in vain прöста мырсьыны
to make efforts in vain
Reference
Comment КомиРС 531
ACCEPTED Realization 10
Type Polysemy
Language Nanaj
Lexeme бай
Meaning 1 for free, for nothing
Meaning 2 in vain
Reference
Comment Оненко 56.
ACCEPTED Realization 11
Type Polysemy
Language Romanian
Lexeme degeaba
Meaning 1 for free, for nothing
Direction
Meaning 2 in vain
Reference DEX98
Comment DEX98, NODEX
ACCEPTED Realization 12
Type Polysemy
Language Russian
Lexeme darom
Meaning 1 for nothing, for free a. Даром не брать ничего, а платить. 'Don't take anything for free, you should pay.' b. Лошадку даром взял, за 30 рублей. ' I got the horse practically for nothing, for 30 roubles.'
Direction
Meaning 2 in vain a. Все труды пропали даром. 'All work was vain.' b. Даром слова не молви, на ветер. 'Do not say a word in vain, to the four winds.' c. Даром (попусту) молва не ходит. 'The rumours do not spread for nothing.'
Reference
Comment Cf. examples with negation from Dal': Недаром ("не зря") говорится, что дело не годится 'Not for nothing it is said, that this thing is not good'.
NEW Realization 13
Type Polysemy
Language Rutul
Lexeme гьавайи
Meaning 1 free of charge
Direction
Meaning 2 vain, in vain
Reference Alisultanov, Sulejmanova 2019: 96
Comment
NEW Realization 14
Type Polysemy
Language Serbian
Lexeme џаба (džaba)
Meaning 1 free of charge добити нешто џаба
to get something for free
Direction
Meaning 2 in vain џаба се трудити
to try in vain
Reference Vujanitsh et al. 2007: 1525
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 15
Type Polysemy
Language Swahili
Lexeme bwerere
Meaning 1 for free, for nothing
Direction
Meaning 2 something useless
Reference
Comment Polikanov
ACCEPTED Realization 16
Type Polysemy
Language Tabassaran
Lexeme hawajidi
Meaning 1 for free, very cheaply гьавайиди алабхъунзуз
I got it very for a very low price
Meaning 2 in vain уву гьавайиди гъягъюб гъабхьну
You should not have gone there.
Reference
Comment The same in Lezgian (гьавайда), cf. (LezgRus 96).
ACCEPTED Realization 17
Type Polysemy
Language Tigrinya
Lexeme bəbəlaš
Meaning 1 'in vain, for nothing, gratis'
Direction
Meaning 2 'uselessly, in vain'
Reference
Comment KT 1091
NEW Realization 18
Type Polysemy
Language Turkish
Lexeme hasbî
Meaning 1 free of charge, gratuitious

hasbî bir çalışma


working without payment

Direction
Meaning 2 in vain

hasbî azar işitti


he was criticized without a reason

Reference Baskakov 1977: 388
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 19
Type Polysemy
Language Ukrainian
Lexeme durno
Meaning 1 for free, for nothing (colloq.)
Direction
Meaning 2 in vain
Reference
Comment