to breathe to rest 24 realizations
ACCEPTED Realization 1
Type Polysemy
Language Classical Arabic
Lexeme ʔarāḥa
Meaning 1 to breathe
Direction
Meaning 2 to have rest
Reference
Comment (Lane 1179).
ACCEPTED Realization 2
Type Polysemy
Language Swahili
Lexeme tanafusi
Meaning 1 to breath
Direction
Meaning 2 to have rest, to make a break
Reference
Comment Polikanov
ACCEPTED Realization 3
Type Polysemy
Language Swahili
Lexeme pumua
Meaning 1 to breath
Direction
Meaning 2 to make a break
Reference
Comment Polikanov
ACCEPTED Realization 4
Type Polysemy
Language Sanskrit
Lexeme āçvas
Meaning 1 to breath freely
Direction
Meaning 2 to have rest
Reference
Comment Кочергина 103-104
ACCEPTED Realization 5
Type Polysemy
Language Osetin
Lexeme улæфын (ūlæfyn)
Meaning 1 to breath
Direction
Meaning 2 to have rest
Reference Abaev: 4, 14
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 6
Type Polysemy
Language Karaim
Lexeme тын-
Meaning 1 to breath
Direction
Meaning 2 to have rest
Reference
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 7
Type Derivation
Language Ancient Greek
Lexeme 1 ψύχω
Lexeme 2 ἀναψύχω
Meaning 1 to blow, to breathe
Direction
Meaning 2 to give rest, refreshment
Reference
Comment In this case the shift in meaning was possibly the following: 'to breath, to blow' > 'to cool, to refresh' > 'to give rest'
ACCEPTED Realization 8
Type Polysemy
Language Farsi
Lexeme تنفس tanaffos
Meaning 1 breath تنفس کردن tanaffos kardan
'to breath'
Direction
Meaning 2 pause, break
Reference Rubinčik 1970: 402
Comment ПРС 219. Borrowed from the Arabic nfs 'to breathe', like in Swahili.
ACCEPTED Realization 9
Type Polysemy
Language Erzya
Lexeme укстамс
Meaning 1 to sigh Микита куваксто укстась
'Nikita sighed deeply'
Direction
Meaning 2 to have rest максомс ломантненень укстамс
'to let people have rest'
Reference
Comment ЭрзРС 692
ACCEPTED Realization 10
Type Polysemy
Language Geez
Lexeme ʔanfasa
Meaning 1 to breathe, to exhale ʔarāwit za-yānaffəsu ʔəsāta 'beasts which breathe fire'
Direction
Meaning 2 to have rest, to relax ʕabiya gəbra faṣṣamka wa-ʔanfaska 'you have completed a great deed and you had rest'
Reference
Comment (LLA 706). The meaning B is more widespread (cf. also ʔastanfasa 'to breathe', ibid.). The meaning A is the original one, the root goes back to the Proto-Semitic *npš 'to breathe' (cf. SED I, No. 46).
ACCEPTED Realization 11
Type Derivation
Language Russian
Lexeme 1 дышать (dyšat')
Lexeme 2 отдыхать (otdyhat')
Meaning 1 breath
Direction
Meaning 2 to have rest
Reference BTS
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 12
Type Polysemy
Language Jarawara
Lexeme hasi na
Meaning 1 to breathe Oko hasi ni fafawaraba ke.
'My breathing is weak.'
Direction
Meaning 2 to rest Hasi onahabana oke, mata.
'I'm going to take a little rest.'
Reference
Comment JED 80.
ACCEPTED Realization 13
Type Polysemy
Language Makonde
Lexeme ku-pumula
Meaning 1 to breathe
Direction
Meaning 2 to take a rest
Reference François 2008: 182
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 14
Type Polysemy
Language Nahuatl
Lexeme imi’iyo
Meaning 1 to breathe
Direction
Meaning 2 to take a rest
Reference François 2008: 183
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 15
Type Polysemy
Language Mwotlap
Lexeme mōkheg
Meaning 1 to breathe
Direction
Meaning 2 to take a rest
Reference François 2008: 183
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 16
Type Polysemy
Language Kumak
Lexeme horêân
Meaning 1 to breathe
Direction
Meaning 2 to take a rest
Reference François 2008: 183
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 17
Type Polysemy
Language Tuyuca
Lexeme ye'e-ri-sã
Meaning 1 breathe, breath
Direction
Meaning 2 rest
Reference IDS
Comment CLICKS-3
ACCEPTED Realization 18
Type Polysemy
Language Waorani
Lexeme gẽbã
Meaning 1 breathe, breath
Direction
Meaning 2 rest
Reference IDS
Comment CLICS-3
ACCEPTED Realization 19
Type Polysemy
Language Embera
Lexeme ɨ̃ɲã'ba
Meaning 1 breathe, breath
Direction
Meaning 2 rest
Reference IDS
Comment CLICS-3
ACCEPTED Realization 20
Type Cognates
Language 1 Antsi (Ayta Maganchi)
Language 2 Kapampangan
Lexeme 1 maŋ-is-náwa
Lexeme 2 -ináwa
Meaning 1 to breathe
Direction
Meaning 2 to rest
Reference ACD
Comment 'to breath' in many Austronesian languages. Also Tagalog gi-nháwa 'ease; comfort; prosperity; wealth; freedom from pain, poverty, trouble, etc.; life of ease; convenience; consolation received, rest, respite, quiet; freedom from anything that tires, troubles, disturbs or pains', Wogeo mañawa 'to rest', Manam manawa 'to rest, take a rest, repose', Ilokano gi-nʔáwa ‘relief, comfort, ease, rest, relaxation’ (< Tagalog?)
ACCEPTED Realization 21
Type Polysemy
Language Futunan
Lexeme mānava
Meaning 1 to breathe
Direction
Meaning 2 to rest
Reference ACD
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 22
Type Polysemy
Language Arosi
Lexeme manawa
Meaning 1 to breathe
Direction
Meaning 2 to rest
Reference ACD
Comment
NEW Realization 23
Type Polysemy
Language Malak-Malak
Lexeme pirrpak
Meaning 1 to be windy, to blow (from a mouth)
Direction
Meaning 2 to rest, take a break
Reference Lindsay et al. 2017: 23
Comment
NEW Realization 24
Type Polysemy
Language Tagalog
Lexeme hingá
Meaning 1 to breathe
Direction
Meaning 2 to rest
Reference SEAlang Tagalog
Comment