Number of realizations

22

apple

potato

Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Chuvash
Lexeme улма
Meaning 1 apple
Meaning 2 potato
Reference
Related Languages
Comment The meaning of 'potatoe' is dialectal. The Standard Chuvash for potatoe is çĕр улми lit. 'earthern apple' (Дегтярев 2002, 51-52)
Realization
Type Borrowing
Language 1 Russian
Language 2 Evenki
Lexeme 1 яблоко (jabloko)
Lexeme 2 jaблака (Transbaikal dialect), jāвлик (Barguzin dialect)
Meaning 1 apple
Direction
Meaning 2 potato
Reference Anikin 2003 page 726
Related Languages
Comment SSTM 1, 336 Meaning 'potato' existed already in Russian dialects.
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Russian
Lexeme яблоко (jabloko)
Meaning 1 apple
Direction
Meaning 2 (dialect) potato
Reference Anikin 2003 page 726
Related Languages
Comment widespread in dialects of Siberia, also noted in Yaroslavl', Kostroma, Novgorod, Tver', Vologda. More often in plural яблоки, яблочки. Also земляное яблоко lit. 'earth apple'
Realization
Type Borrowing
Language 1 Russian
Language 2 Khakas
Lexeme 1 яблоко (jabloko)
Lexeme 2 яблах
Meaning 1 apple
Direction
Meaning 2 potato
Reference Anikin 2003 page 726
Related Languages
Comment Meaning 'potato' existed already in Russian dialects.
Realization
Type Borrowing
Language 1 Russian
Language 2 Buriat
Lexeme 1 яблоко (jabloko)
Lexeme 2 яаблаха, яабал, jāбăлхă
Meaning 1 apple
Direction
Meaning 2 potato
Reference Anikin 2003 page 726
Related Languages
Comment Meaning 'potato' existed already in Russian dialects.
Realization
Type Borrowing
Language 1 Russian
Language 2 Komi
Lexeme 1 яблоко (jabloko)
Lexeme 2 яблöг
Meaning 1 apple
Direction
Meaning 2 potato
Reference Anikin 2003 page 726
Related Languages
Comment Middle Sysola dialect of Komi
Realization
Type Semantic evolution
Language Faroese
Lexeme epli
Meaning 1 apple
Direction
Meaning 2 potato
Reference Sprotin.fo
Related Languages
Comment The word originally meant apple (and still retains that sense in biblical and poetical context), but which has now become the common term for potato. Also rare jørðepli 'potato' from jørð 'ground'. For 'apple' was constructed new term súrepli (from sour)
Realization
Type Derivation
Language Norwegian
Lexeme 1 eple
Lexeme 2 jordeple
Meaning 1 apple
Direction
Meaning 2 potato
Reference BO
Related Languages
Comment Nynorsk (also Bokmål and Nynorsk potet 'potato'). jord 'earth, ground'. From Dutch aardappel
Realization
Type Derivation
Language Romansh
Lexeme 1 mail
Lexeme 2 mailinterra
Meaning 1 apple
Direction
Meaning 2 potato
Reference Pledari
Related Languages
Comment Vallader
Realization
Type Derivation
Language Icelandic
Lexeme 1 epli
Lexeme 2 jarðepli
Meaning 1 apple
Direction
Meaning 2 potato
Reference ISLEX
Related Languages
Comment from jörð 'earth, ground'
Realization
Type Derivation
Language German
Lexeme 1 Apfel
Lexeme 2 Erdapfel
Meaning 1 apple
Direction
Meaning 2 potato
Reference Duden
Related Languages
Comment Austria, Switzerland, Southern Germany. From Erde 'earth'
Realization
Type Derivation
Language Polish
Lexeme 1 jabłko
Lexeme 2 jabłko ziemne
Meaning 1 apple
Direction
Meaning 2 potato
Reference Miodek 2002 page 800
Related Languages
Comment Obsolete. In Modern Polish ziemniak 'potato'
Realization
Type Derivation
Language Tajiki
Lexeme 1 себ
Lexeme 2 себзаминӣ, себи заминӣ
Meaning 1 apple
Direction
Meaning 2 potato
Reference Raximi Uspenskaja 1954 page 352
Related Languages
Comment замин 'earth'
Realization
Type Derivation
Language Farsi
Lexeme 1 سیب sib
Lexeme 2 سیبزمینی sibzamini
Meaning 1 apple
Direction
Meaning 2 potato
Reference Rubinčik 1970 page 2 77-78
Related Languages
Comment zamin 'earth'
Realization
Type Derivation
Language Meadow Mari
Lexeme 1 олма
Lexeme 2 роколма
Meaning 1 apple
Direction
Meaning 2 potato Олмапу пеледеш – роколма шындаш йӧра
"The apple tree will bloom. It's time to plant potatos"
Reference Marij jylme muter
Related Languages
Comment рок 'earth'
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Udmurt
Lexeme алма
Meaning 1 apple
Direction
Meaning 2 potato
Reference Kirillova 2008
Related Languages
Comment Also муалма 'potato'. Dialectal in both meanings. Main term for potato is картофка, main terms for apple are улмо and яблок.
Realization
Type Derivation
Language Hill Mari
Lexeme 1 олма
Lexeme 2 роколма
Meaning 1 apple олма кагыль
"apple pie"
Direction
Meaning 2 potato роколма
"potato soup"
Reference Savatkova 2008
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Derivation
Language Dutch
Lexeme 1 appel
Lexeme 2 aardappel
Meaning 1 apple
Direction
Meaning 2 potato
Reference Mironov 1987
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Derivation
Language Romanian
Lexeme 1 poamă
Lexeme 2 poamă-de-pământ
Meaning 1 apple
Direction
Meaning 2 (dialect) potato
Reference Seche 2002
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Romanian
Lexeme măr
Meaning 1 apple
Direction
Meaning 2 (dialect) potato
Reference Seche 2002
Related Languages
Comment
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Tver Karelian
Lexeme juablokka
Meaning 1 apple
Direction
Meaning 2 potato juablokkua vaguol’l’ešša kodvazekši ando hevos’t’a
"He gave a horse for a little while to spud potatoes"
Reference Punžina 1994 page 75
Related Languages
Comment From Russian in both meanings. Also muajuablokka, miajiablokka lit. 'earth apple'
Realization
Type Polysemy
Language Erzya
Lexeme 1 умарь
Lexeme 2 модамарь
Meaning 1 apple
Direction
Meaning 2 potato рестазь модамарь
"roasted potatos"
Reference Serebrennikov et al. 1993 page 386 694
Related Languages
Comment