<name of person> monarch 6 realizations
ACCEPTED Realization 1
Type Polysemy
Language Hittite
Lexeme labarna-, tabarna-
Meaning 1 name of the first king of the Hittites, founder of the Hittite Old Kingdom
Meaning 2 title of Hittite kings
Reference CHD: Volume L-N, 41-43
Comment The names od Labarna(sh) and his wife Tawannannash «were assumed, almost as titles, by every reigning king and queen from Telepinush onwards and held by each for life, in a way which suggests that the spirits of the ancestors were believed to live on in each successive royal pair. When used in this way, the name Labarnash commonly appears (especially in Akkadian and Luwian contexts) in the variant form Tabarna(sh), possibly because the name was originally Khattic and began with a peculiar consonant which was rendered differently in the different languages» (O. R. Gurney in CAH, vol. 2, p. 1, 235-239)
ACCEPTED Realization 2
Type Polysemy
Language Hittite
Lexeme tawannanna
Meaning 1 name of Labarna's wife
Meaning 2 title of Hittite queens
Reference CAH: vol. 2, part 1, 235
ACCEPTED Realization 3
Type Borrowing
Language 1 Latin
Language 2 Gothic
Lexeme 1 Caesar
Lexeme 2 Kaisar
Meaning 1 Gaius Julius Caesar
Meaning 2 emperor
Reference Lehmann
Comment One of earliest borrowings from Latin to Germanic languages. Proto-Germanic *kaisaraz, Old English, cāsere, Middle English kasar, caisare, kayser, keiser, Old Frisian kaiser, keiser, West Frisian keizer, Old Saxon: kēsar, *keisari, Middle Low German *keisere, Plautdietsch Kjeisa, Old Norse keisari, Icelandic keisari, Faroese keisari, Norwegian Bokmål keiser, Norwegian Nynorsk keisar, Swedish kejsare, Danish kejser, Old Dutch keiser, Middle Dutch keiser, Dutch keizer, Old High German keisar, keisur, Middle High German keiser, German Kaiser, Luxembourgish Keeser, Old Norse Kjárr, Gothic kaisar (Ringe 2006, 296). From uncertain Germanic language (not directly from Proto-Germanic) borrowed to the Slavic *cěsařь: Old East Slavic цѣсарь (cěsarĭ), цесарь (cesarĭ), Russian цесарь → цьсарь → царь, Ukrainian цісар, Old Church Slavonic цѣсарь (cěsarĭ), Bulgarian цар, Serbo-Croatian це̏сар (cȅsar), Slovene césar, Old Czech ciesař, Czech císař, Slovak cisár, Kashubian césôrz, Polish cesarz. Exception is Old Russina Кесарь from New Testament Greek Καῖσαρ ← Latin Caesar. Pronk-Tiethoff 2013, 99, Słownik prasłowiański II, 82, Skok 1971, I, 258, Snoj 2016, Черных 2, 362; Фасмер 4, 290-291.
ACCEPTED Realization 4
Type Polysemy
Language Latin
Lexeme Caesar
Meaning 1 cognomen in the Julian gens, esp. that of C. Julius Caesar (102-44 B.C.), inherited as a cognomen by Octavian and by succeeding emperors
Meaning 2 emperor
Reference Glare: 254
ACCEPTED Realization 5
Type Borrowing
Language 1 Old East Slavic
Language 2 Lithuanian
Lexeme 1 Володимѣръ
Lexeme 2 valdýmieras
Meaning 1 Vladimir Sviatoslavich (c. 958 – 1015), Prince of Novgorod, Grand Prince of Kiev, and ruler of Kievan Rus' from 980 to 1015
Meaning 2 lord, master, ruler
Reference Fraenkel: 1188
Comment Черных 1, 431.
ACCEPTED Realization 6
Type Borrowing
Language 1 Old High German
Language 2 Old East Slavic
Lexeme 1 Karal, Karl
Lexeme 2 король (korolĭ)
Meaning 1 Charlemagne
Meaning 2 king
Reference Sreznevskij: I, 1290
Comment Generally agreed to derive from Old High German Karl, name of the Frankish ruler Charlemagne (742-814) who ruled the western areas of Slavdom. The word has been described as "without doubt the most famous Germanic loanword in Slavic" (Pronk-Tiethoff 2013) due to the fact that it's the only loanword in Slavic that can actually be dated, thus giving clues to the absolute dating of Proto-Slavic phonological developments. The fact that it regularly underwent historical Proto-Slavic sound laws, and that it's reflected in all three branches, is one of the chief indications to date Late Proto-Slavic (Common Slavic) to the ninth century. However, this is comparatively late (only a century before Old Church Slavonic manuscripts were written), so other etymologies have been suggested. Holzer derives it from the name of the Frankish ruler Charles Martel (688-741). The issue with this theory is that Charles Martel was not particularly important to the contemporary Slavs. Stender-Petersen derives it from Proto-Germanic *kar(i)laz “free man” (Old High German karl “man”) with a semantic shift explained as "very ordinary". These theories are generally thought of as less convincing than from Karl "Charlemagne", who was an actual king of (some) Slavs. Proto-Slavic *kõrľь, Old East Slavic король (korolĭ), Belarusian кароль, Russian король, Ukrainian король, Bulgarian крал, Macedonian крал, Serbo-Croatian кра̑љ (krȃlj), Slovene králj, Czech král, Lower Sorbian kral, Kashubian król, Polish król, Slovak kráľ, Slovincian krȯ́u̯l, krȯl, Lower Sorbian krol, Upper Sorbian kral (ESSJa 11, 82; Snoj 2016, Pronk-Tiethoff 2013, 111, Фасмер 2,333-334). In Old East Slavic attested in Novgorod First Chronicle (earliest extant copy dated to the second half of the 13th century) and Hypatian Chronicle (dates back to ca. 1425, codex was possibly compiled at the end of the 13th century)