father <exclamation of surprise, pain or sorrow> 12 realizations
ACCEPTED Realization 1
Type Derivation
Language Russian
Lexeme батюшки, batûški
Meaning 1 father
Direction
Meaning 2 oj batûški moi! oh fathers mine!
Reference Ефремова 2000
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 2
Type Derivation
Language Russian
Lexeme батеньки, baten’ki
Meaning 1 father
Direction
Meaning 2 Зайдешь в зало, картины-ти – батеньки! Zaydesh v zalo, kartiny-ti – batenjki!
'You go into the hall, pictures... - my dears!'
Reference Kachinskaya 2018
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 3
Type Polysemy
Language Tamil
Lexeme appā
Meaning 1 father
Direction
Meaning 2 aiyō, appā! oh, father!
Reference Tamil-Russian dictionary: 38
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 4
Type Polysemy
Language Malayalam
Lexeme accan
Meaning 1 father
Direction
Meaning 2
Reference Gundert Malayalam dictionary: 9
Comment Also: appā, appappā, appaṭā - interjection of pain and surprise, from the stem appa 'father'
ACCEPTED Realization 5
Type Polysemy
Language Hindi
Lexeme bāp
Meaning 1 father
Direction
Meaning 2 exclamation of fear
Reference Beskrovnyj 1959: 810
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 6
Type Polysemy
Language Romani
Lexeme даде
Meaning 1 daddy
Direction
Meaning 2 exclamation of surprise
Reference Demeter, Demeter 1990: 61
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 7
Type Polysemy
Language Khmer
Lexeme pay
Meaning 1 father (archaic)
Direction
Meaning 2 exclamation of surprise
Reference SEAlang Khmer
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 8
Type Derivation
Language Azerbaijani
Lexeme 1 dədə
Lexeme 2 dədəm
Meaning 1 daddy
Direction
Meaning 2 exclamation of fear or surprise
Reference Azərbaycanca-rusca lüǧet 2006: 719
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 9
Type Polysemy
Language Kurux
Lexeme babas
Meaning 1 father
Direction
Meaning 2
Reference Oraon-English Dictionary: 45
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 10
Type Polysemy
Language Kannada
Lexeme appa
Meaning 1 father
Direction
Meaning 2 interjection denoting, surprise, pain, or grief
'appa! oh, alas!'
Reference Kannada-English Etymological Dictionary: 44
Comment Dictionary describes them as two different meanings, though our data proves there is one meaning and a semantic shift. [Smirnitskaya 2019] Also: ayyayyē/ ayyayyō, 'interjection expressing grief, surprise, compassion’ (ср. англ ah, alas! my goodness, ah, aha!),
ACCEPTED Realization 11
Type Polysemy
Language Telugu
Lexeme 1 abba
Lexeme 2 abba (abbā or abbabbā)
Meaning 1 father
Direction
Meaning 2 an interjection of grief or admiration a common exclamation
Reference Brown Telugu dictionary: 67
Comment Meaning 2: an interjection of grief or admiration a common exclamation. ~Ayyō! Also in other dictionary, Gwynn Telugu: "abbabbaa! interj. expressing distress or displeasure" (Gwynn 29).
ACCEPTED Realization 12
Type Derivation
Language Kuvi
Lexeme 1 āba
Lexeme 2 ābaliyo, ābalesa
Meaning 1 father
Direction
Meaning 2
Reference Israel_Grammar of Kuvi: 239
Comment