wild, untamed rude, impolite 23 realizations
ACCEPTED Realization 1
Type Polysemy
Language Azerbaijani
Lexeme vəhşi
Meaning 1 wild, untamed (of animals)
Direction
Meaning 2 at the level of primitive culture, uncivilized; strange, ridiculous; unbridled, frantic, indomitable (of emotions etc.); rude, not characteristic of a cultured society, backward; barbaric, cruel
Reference ARL 2006: 750
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 2
Type Polysemy
Language Brazilian Portuguese
Lexeme bagual
Meaning 1 an untamed horse
Direction
Meaning 2 uncouth; crude (of a person)
Reference <personally collected data>
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 3
Type Polysemy
Language Bulgarian
Lexeme див
Meaning 1 wild, untamed диво животно
wild animal
Direction
Meaning 2 (figuratively) savage, barbaric, uncivilized; rough, furious
Reference <personally collected data>
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 4
Type Polysemy
Language Burmese
Lexeme yáĩ
Meaning 1 wild; untamed
Direction
Meaning 2 rude, uncouth, uncivilized; inexperienced, unfamiliar
Reference SEAlang Burmrse
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 5
Type Polysemy
Language Classical Armenian
Lexeme gazan (գազան)
Meaning 1 wild predatory beast
Direction
Meaning 2 (figuratively) brutal, beastly man
Reference Petrosean, Matatʿeay 1879
Comment Modern Armenian gazan (գազան) wild beast; (figuratively) brute, cruel man; adj. brutal, bestial; atrocious, savage. An Iranian borrowing: compare Middle Persian gzytn (gazīdan), Persian‎ gazidan 'to bite, sting',‎ gazân 'biting'.
ACCEPTED Realization 6
Type Polysemy
Language French
Lexeme sauvage
Meaning 1 wild, untamed animaux sauvages
wild animals
Direction
Meaning 2 wild (of a person) mœurs sauvages
savage manners
Reference NFRS
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 7
Type Polysemy
Language Indonesian
Lexeme liar
Meaning 1 wild, untamed, undomesticated
Direction
Meaning 2 uncivilized, uncultured, primitive, barbaric, savage, wild; illegal, unlawful, outlawed, unauthorized; irregular
Reference SEALang Indonesia
Comment meliarkan 'to drive someone wild'; 'to free (a domesticated animal in the jungle in order to increase the jungle population of that species), to return (an animal) to the wild'.
ACCEPTED Realization 8
Type Polysemy
Language Italian
Lexeme selvaggio
Meaning 1 wild, untamed animali selvaggi
wild animals
Direction
Meaning 2 rude, ill-mannered
Reference Zor'ko et al. 2002
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 9
Type Polysemy
Language Italian
Lexeme selvatico
Meaning 1 wild, untamed
Direction
Meaning 2 rude
Reference Zor'ko et al. 2002
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 10
Type Polysemy
Language Javanese
Lexeme bandhol
Meaning 1 (of horses) wild, untamed
Direction
Meaning 2 impolite, insolent
Reference SEAlang Javanese
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 11
Type Polysemy
Language Latin
Lexeme agrestis
Meaning 1 not tamed or domesticated (of animals)
Direction
Meaning 2 boorish, coarse, clumsy, uncivilizated; also unsophisticated, simple (of persons; of speech, behaviour, qualities etc.)
Reference Glare: 90-91
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 12
Type Polysemy
Language Latin
Lexeme ferus
Meaning 1 undomesticated, not tame, wild
Direction
Meaning 2 uncivilized, barbarous, rude, rough; not amenable to restraint, disobedient, unruly; high-spirited, unsubdued; aggresive, fierce, ferocious, warlike; savage; cruel, ruthless, inhuman
Reference Glare: 692-693
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 13
Type Polysemy
Language Mandarin Chinese
Lexeme yě (野)
Meaning 1 wild, untamed Yě dào (野稻), yě gǒu (野狗)
wild rice; wild dog, dingo
Direction
Meaning 2 rude, uncivilized, uncouth (also self-deprecating "mine"), savage, barbaric; unbridled, unbridled; naughty, headstrong, wayward; rampant; restive Cǐ fēi jūnzǐ zhī yán, qí dōng yěrén zhī yǔ yě (此非君子之言, 齐东野人之语也); Fàngle jī tiān jiǎ, xīn dōu wán yěle (放了机天假, 心都玩野了)
This is not the words of a gentleman, but the words of the villain Eastern Qi; completely spoiled for a few days of vacation
Reference BKRS
Comment 'countryside; field; outskirts; wilderness plain; open country; open space area; region; boundary'. Phono-semantic compound: semantic 田 'field' + semantic 土 'earth' + phonetic 予 (OC *la, *laʔ). From a hypothetical common Sino-Tibetan *la 'area far from settlements; wilderness': compare Tibetan la 'mountain pass; hillside; mountainslope' (Schuessler, 2007); possibly related to Proto-Mon-Khmer *laʔ 'to spread, extend': Khmer liə 'to unfold, spread, open out' (Schuessler, 2007); or from a Sino-Tibetan root meaning 'hut; pantry': compare Tibetan lhas 'pen; fold; cattle enclosure' (Starostin). Also Mandarin Chinese yěmāo (野猫) 'wild cat', 'unbridled, rude'.
ACCEPTED Realization 14
Type Polysemy
Language Modern Written Arabic
Lexeme waḥšiyy- وَحْشِىّ
Meaning 1 wild, untamed
Direction
Meaning 2 brutish, savage, barbarious, uncivilized
Reference Wehr: 1238 Lane: 2929
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 15
Type Polysemy
Language Nganasan
Lexeme бахи
Meaning 1 wild, untamed
Direction
Meaning 2 rude person
Reference Kosterkina, Momde, Ždanova 2001: 21
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 16
Type Polysemy
Language Portuguese
Lexeme selvagem
Meaning 1 wild, untamed
Direction
Meaning 2 ill-mannered, rude
Reference Feerštejn, Starec 2005
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 17
Type Polysemy
Language Portuguese
Lexeme bravio
Meaning 1 feral, wild
Direction
Meaning 2 uneducated, uncivilized
Reference Feerštejn, Starec 2005
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 18
Type Polysemy
Language Portuguese
Lexeme fero
Meaning 1 wild, predatory
Direction
Meaning 2 rustic, uncultivated
Reference Feerštejn, Starec 2005
Comment
NEW Realization 19
Type Polysemy
Language Rutul
Lexeme ваIхIши / waˤχši
Meaning 1 wild, untamed

ваIхIши гьаIйван / waˤχši χaˤjwan


a wild animal

Direction
Meaning 2 rude, barbarous

ваIхIшивалды выъын / waˤχšiwaldɨ wɨʔɨn


to act wildly, barbarously

Reference Alisultanov, Sulejmanova 2019: 52
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 20
Type Polysemy
Language Spanish
Lexeme salvaje
Meaning 1 wild, untamed ganso salvaje
wild goose
Direction
Meaning 2 (about a person) wild; rude
Reference Narumov 1995
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 21
Type Polysemy
Language Spanish
Lexeme montaraz
Meaning 1 wild (of animal)
Direction
Meaning 2 wild, rough (i.e. not quite civilized)
Reference Narumov 1995
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 22
Type Polysemy
Language Spanish
Lexeme cimarrón
Meaning 1 feral (having returned to the wild) med Y entonces comprendí que así como el caballo americano, lo mismo que el toro, que corre libre por montes y llanos, no es el caballo salvaje, sino el caballo cimarrón, el caballo doméstico vuelto a la vida bravía y salvaje, […] (Miguel de Unamuno, Nelson R. Orringer, Americanidad)
And then I realised that, like the american horse, and the same for the bull, that runs free around the mountains and plains, isn’t the wild horse, but rather the feral horse, the domestic horse that returned to a wild and savage life, […]
Direction
Meaning 2 (about a person) wild; rude
Reference Narumov 1995
Comment Latin America
ACCEPTED Realization 23
Type Polysemy
Language Turkish
Lexeme vahşi
Meaning 1 predator (animal)
Direction
Meaning 2 uncivilized, uncultured; (metaphor) rude, disrespectful, unfit
Reference TDKS
Comment From Arabian waḥš 'wild animal'