boy servant 43 realizations
ACCEPTED Realization 1
Type Polysemy
Language Ancient Greek
Lexeme παῖς
Meaning 1 child, baby
Direction
Meaning 2 young slave
Reference LSJ
Comment LSJ 1289
ACCEPTED Realization 2
Type Polysemy
Language Ancient Hebrew
Lexeme naʕar
Meaning 1 lad, adolescent; young man naʕar ḳaṭōn ‘a little boy’ (1S 22:35)
Direction
Meaning 2 fellow, servant, attendant naʕǎrē hammelek ‘the servants of the king’ (Est 2:2)
Reference
Comment (HALOT 707)
ACCEPTED Realization 3
Type Polysemy
Language Armenian
Lexeme tła
Meaning 1 boy
Direction
Meaning 2 servant
Reference
Comment АрмРС 660
NEW Realization 4
Type Polysemy
Language Assamese
Lexeme apa (আপা)
Meaning 1 boy
Direction
Meaning 2 (informal) a young male home servant
Reference <personally collected data>
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 5
Type Borrowing
Language 1 Azerbaijani
Language 2 Kyrghyz
Lexeme 1 malay
Lexeme 2 малай
Meaning 1 young man, boy, youth
Direction
Meaning 2 knave, servant, laborer
Reference <personally collected data>
Comment Cf. also the Tatar малай 'child; son'
ACCEPTED Realization 6
Type Polysemy
Language Azerbaijani
Lexeme gәdә
Meaning 1 boy
Direction
Meaning 2 servant
Reference ARRAL: 102
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 7
Type Polysemy
Language 1 Bulgarian
Language 2 Old Slavonic
Lexeme 1 hlape
Lexeme 2 хлапъ
Meaning 1 boy
Direction
Meaning 2 servant, slave
Reference Фасмер, IV, 257.
Comment Cf. Also the Pol. сhłор, High Lus. khłор, khłорс "guy", Bulg. хлапе Mid. Rus., хлапак "boy" (Фасмер 4,257) Pol. сhłорiес "boy" (Фасмер, 4, 245). Rus. Холоп
NEW Realization 8
Type Polysemy
Language Bulgarian
Lexeme момче
Meaning 1 boy
Direction
Meaning 2 labourer, worker
Reference Bernštejn 1966: 325
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 9
Type Derivation
Language Chaha
Lexeme 1 dängʸa
Lexeme 2 yäbet dängʸa
Meaning 1 boys yagdatɛ yädängʸa mädäru 'the area of the partition is the children's'; dängʸa tägred 'boys and girls'
Direction
Meaning 2 servants and slaves of the family (lit. children of the house) yäčbɛmma yäbet dängʸa yədgataropʷä 'as for the section of the central pillar, the servants sleep in it
Reference
Comment (LGur. I 44; Leslau 1983:40, 45)
ACCEPTED Realization 10
Type Polysemy
Language Classical Arabic
Lexeme ġulām-
Meaning 1 a young man, youth, boy, or male child
Direction
Meaning 2 a male slave
Reference
Comment (Lane 2286-87).
NEW Realization 11
Type Polysemy
Language Croatian
Lexeme momak
Meaning 1 guy, boy
Direction
Meaning 2 assistant to an elder or a superior person (usually in the rural economy)
Reference HJP
Comment
NEW Realization 12
Type Polysemy
Language Dutch
Lexeme jongen
Meaning 1 boy

De jongen speelt in de tuin met zijn bal.


The boy is playing in the garden with his ball.

Direction
Meaning 2 male servant, especially but not exclusively a younger one (using it for older men may be dated and offensive)

De rijke koopman had een jongen die hem hielp bij zijn dagelijkse taken.


The wealthy merchant had a male servant who assisted him with his daily tasks.

Reference English Wiktionary
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 13
Type Polysemy
Language English
Lexeme boy
Meaning 1 boy
Direction
Meaning 2 boy (errand boy, boy servant in the East)
Reference
Comment Cf. Also the Fr. garçon 'a boy waiter in a cafe'
ACCEPTED Realization 14
Type Polysemy
Language French
Lexeme garçon
Meaning 1 boy Filles et garçons vont dans les mêmes écoles.
Girls and boys go to the same schools.
Direction
Meaning 2 servant (obs.), waiter donner un pourboire au garçon
to tip the waiter
Reference CNRTL
Comment Originally, the direction of the shift was inverse: in Old French, the word garçon meant 'servant' [Sakhno 2009: 311]
ACCEPTED Realization 15
Type Polysemy
Language Fula
Lexeme gorel
Meaning 1 young boy
Direction
Meaning 2 servant
Reference
Comment ФРФС 202
ACCEPTED Realization 16
Type Cognates
Language 1 German
Language 2 English
Lexeme 1 Knabe
Lexeme 2 knave
Meaning 1 boy
Direction
Meaning 2 swindler, rogue
Reference Смирницкий А.И. Хрестоматия по истории английского языка с VII по XVII в. М., 1998, 153
Comment The Engl. knave can be traced back to the Old Engl. сnafa 'boy, young servant, servant'.
NEW Realization 17
Type Polysemy
Language Gulf Arabic
Lexeme ṣbayy (صْبَيْ)
Meaning 1 boy
Direction
Meaning 2 male servant of any age
Reference <personally collected data>
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 18
Type Polysemy
Language Hungarian
Lexeme inas
Meaning 1 boy-disciple
Direction
Meaning 2 valet, servant
Reference Гальди 1974: 325
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 19
Type Polysemy
Language Icelandic
Lexeme piltur
Meaning 1 young man, youth; boy
Direction
Meaning 2 worker, labourer
Reference
Comment Берков
NEW Realization 20
Type Polysemy
Language Javanese
Lexeme kacung
Meaning 1 lad, boy
Direction
Meaning 2 errand boy, houseboy
Reference SEAlang Javanese
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 21
Type Derivation
Language Khmer
Lexeme 1 ko:n
Lexeme 2 ko:n-khmuəy
Meaning 1 child
Direction
Meaning 2 servants
Reference
Comment Gorgoniev 1984, 66
ACCEPTED Realization 22
Type Polysemy
Language Latin
Lexeme puer
Meaning 1 child, baby; boy
Direction
Meaning 2 young servant, slave
Reference Дворецкий И.Х., Латинско-русский словарь. М., 1976
Comment Glare 1514-1515
NEW Realization 23
Type Polysemy
Language Lithuanian
Lexeme bérnas
Meaning 1 lad
Direction
Meaning 2 servant
Reference LRŽ
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 24
Type Polysemy
Language Mandarin Chinese
Lexeme tóng (童)
Meaning 1 teenager, child Nà ge bìngtóng de qíngkuàng jīntiān kànqǐlái bǐ zuótiān gèng bùmiào (那个病童的情况今天看起来比昨天更不妙。)
The sick child looks still worse today than yesterday.
Direction
Meaning 2 young servant; servant boy qiútóng (球童)
caddie
Reference BKRS: 707
Comment
NEW Realization 25
Type Polysemy
Language Mongolian (Khalkha)
Lexeme хүү
Meaning 1 boy
Direction
Meaning 2 servant
Reference BAMRS 2001-2002
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 26
Type Cognates
Language 1 Munji
Language 2 Yidgha
Lexeme 1 idá
Lexeme 2 idã
Meaning 1 young man, youth
Direction
Meaning 2 servant
Reference
Comment ЭСИЯ 3, 102
ACCEPTED Realization 27
Type Polysemy
Language Old East Slavic
Lexeme отрокъ
Meaning 1 boy, teenager Оброшеныę въ огни отрокы (Остромирово Ев., л.245)
boys thrown into the fire (Ostromir Gospels, p. 245)
Direction
Meaning 2 slave И рече къ wтрокомъ своимъ: къторый wт васъ слоужити емоу хощеть, да аще оугодить емоу, живъ Гь, яко свободьнъ боудеть. Златостр.д. 1200 г.
Reference Срезневский, II, 764
Comment The Old Rus. отрокъ means also 'soldier': Пристрои Ратиборъ wтрокы въ wружьи (Повесть временных лет, 6603 г.)
ACCEPTED Realization 28
Type Borrowing
Language 1 Old East Slavic
Language 2 Komi
Lexeme челядь
Meaning 1 valetry, servants
Direction
Meaning 2 children челядьöс доръян йöзкоста лун
International Children's Day
Reference
Comment КомиРС, 695-696
ACCEPTED Realization 29
Type Polysemy
Language Old East Slavic
Lexeme кощеи
Meaning 1 boy
Direction
Meaning 2 servant, slave
Reference Sreznevskij: vol. I, 1307
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 30
Type Polysemy
Language Old English
Lexeme cnafa
Meaning 1 boy
Direction
Meaning 2 young servant, servant
Reference
Comment Bosworth, Toller 161
ACCEPTED Realization 31
Type Polysemy
Language Old English
Lexeme cniht
Meaning 1 boy
Direction
Meaning 2 servant, (young) soldier
Reference
Comment Bosworth, Toller 162-163
ACCEPTED Realization 32
Type Cognates
Language 1 Old English
Language 2 German
Lexeme 1 cniht
Lexeme 2 Knecht
Meaning 1 boy, servant
Direction
Meaning 2 servant
Reference Смирницкий А.И. Хрестоматия по истории английского языка с VII по XVII в. М., 1998
Comment Old Engl. cniht ‘boy, servant, (young) soldier’ >Mod. Engl. knight
ACCEPTED Realization 33
Type Polysemy
Language Old Slavonic
Lexeme отрокъ
Meaning 1 boy
Direction
Meaning 2 servant, servant boy
Reference Старославянский словарь. М., 1999, 424.
Comment Cf. also отрiк 'worker', Bulg. отрок 'boy', Old Serb отрокъ 'under age' etc. See Фасмер III, 172, Копечный 1968
ACCEPTED Realization 34
Type Polysemy
Language Romanian
Lexeme băiat
Meaning 1 boy
Direction
Meaning 2 valet băiat de casă
valet, "boy"
Reference DEX98
Comment DRRS 1, 211, DEX98
ACCEPTED Realization 35
Type Polysemy
Language Sanskrit
Lexeme kumārá
Meaning 1 boy
Direction
Meaning 2 a groom
Reference MW
Comment MW 292
NEW Realization 36
Type Polysemy
Language Serbian
Lexeme момак (momak)
Meaning 1 guy, boy

Znam gomilu momaka od 14 - 15 godina (ima ih i na ovom forumu) koji bez problema mogu da drže predavanja nekim profesorima sa fakulteta o korišćenju Windows-a.


I know a bunch of 14-15 year old guys (there are some on this forum as well) who can easily lecture some college professors on using Windows.

Direction
Meaning 2 servant, assistant, home helper

Božidara Jovića u Kikindi zovu momak za sve. Donosi cigarete i čvarke na adresu, odlazi po lekove i nalaze, čisti oluke, prekopava bašte... I sve to legalno.


In Kikinda, they call Božidar Jović the assistant for everything. He brings cigarettes and crackers to the address, goes to get medicines and reports, cleans gutters, digs up gardens... And all this legally.

Reference CLARIN.SI Vujanitsh et al. 2007: 727
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 37
Type Polysemy
Language Spanish
Lexeme muchacho
Meaning 1 boy, youth
Direction
Meaning 2 servant
Reference
Comment Narumov 1995: 518
NEW Realization 38
Type Polysemy
Language Spanish
Lexeme chico
Meaning 1 boy, kid
Direction
Meaning 2 boy who performs menial jobs in offices, shops and other establishments
Reference DRAE
Comment
NEW Realization 39
Type Polysemy
Language Spanish
Lexeme mozo
Meaning 1 boy, lad, young man, youth
Direction
Meaning 2 servant, helper, steward, manservant; (Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Peru) waiter, server
Reference DRAE
Comment
NEW Realization 40
Type Polysemy
Language Tatar
Lexeme малай
Meaning 1 boy
Direction
Meaning 2 (dated) apprentice; servant
Reference Asylgaraev, Ganiev et al. (eds.) 2007: 2, 15
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 41
Type Cognates
Language 1 Tigrinya
Language 2 Geez
Lexeme 1 ḳolʕa
Lexeme 2 ḳʷəlʕe
Meaning 1 child, kid, infant
Direction
Meaning 2 servant, domestic
Reference
Comment (KT 900; LLA 414; LGz. 426). LGz. 426 reports for Geez the meaning A as well, but this meaning is not given in LLA
NEW Realization 42
Type Polysemy
Language Turkish
Lexeme gulâm
Meaning 1 boy
Direction
Meaning 2 slave
Reference Baskakov 1977: 360
Comment From Arabic ġulām غلام in both meanings. https://www.etimolojiturkce.com/kelime/gulam
ACCEPTED Realization 43
Type Cognates
Language 1 Ukrainian
Language 2 Polish
Lexeme 1 parubok
Lexeme 2 parobek
Meaning 1 young man, youth
Direction
Meaning 2 labourer
Reference
Comment Also Czech parobek 'slave', vern. 'guy'