bitter sad 26 realizations
ACCEPTED Realization 1
Type Polysemy
Language Swahili
Lexeme uchungu
Meaning 1 bitterness, bitter taste
Direction
Meaning 2 bitterness, pain, disappointment (fig.)
Reference Polikanov
Comment Also about physical pain - see 2498.
ACCEPTED Realization 2
Type Polysemy
Language Farsi
Lexeme تلخی talxi
Meaning 1 bitterness
Direction
Meaning 2 grief, affliction
Reference Rubinčik 1970: 393
Comment ПРС 213.
ACCEPTED Realization 3
Type Polysemy
Language Armenian
Lexeme ału
Meaning 1 too bitter
Direction
Meaning 2 sad, mournful
Reference
Comment АрмРС 17
ACCEPTED Realization 4
Type Polysemy
Language Spanish
Lexeme amargar
Meaning 1 to taste bitter
Direction
Meaning 2 to upset
Reference
Comment Narumov 1995: 64
ACCEPTED Realization 5
Type Polysemy
Language Geez
Lexeme marir
Meaning 1 bitter marira kona mes (Jes. 24:9)
the honey got bitter
Direction
Meaning 2 sad la-mənt ṣarāḫka ḫabeya ṣərāḫa marira wa-bəkaya (Hen. 65:5)
Why did you cry out to me with a sad wail and weeping?
Reference
Comment A common Semitic root, in nearly all Semitic languages it combines both meanings A and B
ACCEPTED Realization 6
Type Derivation
Language Russian
Lexeme 1 gor'kij
Lexeme 2 gore
Meaning 1 bitter горький перец
bitter pepper
Direction
Meaning 2 grief горе
trouble, misery
Reference
Comment oth meanings are from "burn".
ACCEPTED Realization 7
Type Polysemy
Language English
Lexeme bitter
Meaning 1 bitter Taste proper comprehends sweet and bitter tastes
Direction
Meaning 2 sad bitter grief; bitter tears
Reference ODE
Comment 'bitter' is a common intensificator, bitter cold.
ACCEPTED Realization 8
Type Polysemy
Language Armenian
Lexeme dařn
Meaning 1 bitter
Direction
Meaning 2 sorrowful
Reference
Comment АрмРС 179
ACCEPTED Realization 9
Type Derivation
Language Karaim
Lexeme 1 ацы
Lexeme 2 ацы-
Meaning 1 bitter ацы йемис
horse radish (lit. Bitter vegetable)
Direction
Meaning 2 to be upset, to grieve
Reference
Comment КРПС 87, 89.
ACCEPTED Realization 10
Type Polysemy
Language Tagalog
Lexeme mapaít
Meaning 1 bitter
Direction
Meaning 2 sorrowful
Reference
Comment Таг 230
ACCEPTED Realization 11
Type Polysemy
Language Yakut
Lexeme аhый-
Meaning 1 to become sour, bitter үүт аhыйбыт
the milk got sour
Direction
Meaning 2 to grieve, to mourn, to sorrow, to regret сүтэрбит саатын аhыйар
He regrets the lost gun
Reference
Comment ЯРС 50.
ACCEPTED Realization 12
Type Polysemy
Language French
Lexeme amer
Meaning 1 bitter Charles, ayant goûté son café, le trouva trop amer
Having tasted his coffee, Charles found it too bitter
Direction
Meaning 2 sorrowful amers regrets
sorrowful regret
Reference Larousse online
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 13
Type Polysemy
Language Norwegian
Lexeme bitter
Meaning 1 bitter bitre mandler
bitter mandels
Direction
Meaning 2 sorrowful, disappointed bli bitter av all motgangen
to become sorrowful because of all the misfortune
Reference BO
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 14
Type Polysemy
Language Danish
Lexeme bitter
Meaning 1 bitter bitre mandler
bitter mandels
Direction
Meaning 2 sorrowful, disappointed
Reference DDO
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 15
Type Polysemy
Language Swedish
Lexeme bitter
Meaning 1 bitter bitter choklad
bitter chocolate
Direction
Meaning 2 sorrowful, angry på sin ålderdom blev han alltmer bitter och isolerad
in his old age he was becoming more and more bitter and lonely
Reference SAO
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 16
Type Polysemy
Language Icelandic
Lexeme bitur
Meaning 1 bitter
Direction
Meaning 2 sad hún sagði þetta bitrum rómi
she said it in a sad voice
Reference ISLEX
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 17
Type Polysemy
Language Hungarian
Lexeme keserű
Meaning 1 bitter keserű orvosság
bitter medicine
Direction
Meaning 2 sorrowful keserű sírás
bitter tears
Reference Гальди 1974: 366
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 18
Type Polysemy
Language Udmurt
Lexeme курыт
Meaning 1 bitter
Direction
Meaning 2 sorrowful курыт синкылиос "горькие слезы"
Reference Kirillova 2008
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 19
Type Polysemy
Language Abaza
Lexeme ajʃa
Meaning 1 bitter fatʃ’ ajʃa zəmfas at͡sχa aqaʕara ɡʲjəjdəram
one who has not had bitter food does not know the sweetness of honey (proverb)
Direction
Meaning 2 sorrowful aʒa ɕardala jwq’aq’rəkʷən jajʃaχjəjt’
if you repeat a word many times it becomes bitter
Reference Tugov 1967
Comment
NEW Realization 20
Type Polysemy
Language Tatar
Lexeme ачы
Meaning 1 bitter

ачы дару


bitter medicine

Direction
Meaning 2 sad

ачы минутлар


bitter minutes

Reference Asylgaraev, Ganiev et al. (eds.) 2007: 1, 150 Ganiev 1997: 114
Comment
NEW Realization 21
Type Polysemy
Language Serbian
Lexeme горак (gorak)
Meaning 1 bitter

горко пиће, горки лек, горка кора


bitter drink, bitter medicine, bitter bark

Direction
Meaning 2 sad, sorrowful

горки уздисај, горки вапаj, горке сузе


sad sigh, sorrowful cry, sad tears

Reference Vujanitsh et al. 2007: 212
Comment
NEW Realization 22
Type Polysemy
Language Croatian
Lexeme gorak
Meaning 1 bitter
Direction
Meaning 2 sad
Reference HJP
Comment
NEW Realization 23
Type Polysemy
Language Bulgarian
Lexeme горчив
Meaning 1 bitter

горчиво лекарство


bitter medicine

Direction
Meaning 2 sad

горчива истина, горчив опит


sad truth, painful experience 

Reference Bernštejn 1966: 95
Comment
NEW Realization 24
Type Polysemy
Language Gagauz
Lexeme acı
Meaning 1 bitter
Direction
Meaning 2 sad
Reference <personally collected data>
Comment

acılanmaa 'to become bitter', 'to be sad'

Gagauzça-rusça-romınca sözlük = Гагаузско-русско-румынский словарь = Dicţionar găgăuz-rus-român / Fundaţia pentru susţinerea şi dezvoltarea ştiinţei şi culturii găgăuzilor "CAINAC"; alcăt. P. Cebotari, I. Dron. - Ch.: PONTOS, 2002

NEW Realization 25
Type Polysemy
Language Erzya
Lexeme чапамо
Meaning 1 bitter

чапамо кшумань; чапамо вина


bitter radish; bitter wine
Direction
Meaning 2 sad

сонзэ саизе чапамо рискс


he was seized with bitter anguish

Reference Serebrennikov et al. 1993: 738
Comment
NEW Realization 26
Type Polysemy
Language Komi
Lexeme курыд
Meaning 1 bitter

вомын курыд


bitter in the mouth

Direction
Meaning 2 sad, hurtful, offensive

 курыд синва


bitter tears

Reference Beznosikova et al. 2000
Comment