to turn, rotate (intr.) to become 21 realizations
ACCEPTED Realization 1
Type Polysemy
Language Icelandic
Lexeme umsnúa
Meaning 1 to turn
Direction
Meaning 2 to transform
Reference
Comment Берков
ACCEPTED Realization 2
Type Polysemy
Language Lezgian
Lexeme elqːün
Meaning 1 to spin, to swirl
Direction
Meaning 2 to turn into бугъдиз элкъуьн
'to turn inot vapour'
Reference
Comment (LezgRus 393)
ACCEPTED Realization 3
Type Polysemy
Language Swahili
Lexeme pindua
Meaning 1 to turn, to topple
Direction
Meaning 2 to transform
Reference
Comment Polikanov
ACCEPTED Realization 4
Type Polysemy
Language Old English
Lexeme awendan
Meaning 1 to turn away/off, avert, remove, turn upside down
Direction
Meaning 2 turn He wæter awende to wînlîcum drence
'He turned water into winelike drink'
Reference
Comment Bosworth, Toller 61-62
ACCEPTED Realization 5
Type Polysemy
Language Azerbaijani
Lexeme dön-
Meaning 1 to turn (back), to roll over
Direction
Meaning 2 to turn into
Reference ARRAL: 81
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 6
Type Polysemy
Language Latin
Lexeme verto, -ere
Meaning 1 to spin
Direction
Meaning 2 to transform
Reference
Comment (Glare 2042-2044)
ACCEPTED Realization 7
Type Polysemy
Language Russian
Lexeme obernut'sja
Meaning 1 to turn Я обернулся и увидел уходящий троллейбус.
'I turned back and saw a trolleybus go away.'
Meaning 2 to turn into Обернулась царевна лягушкой.
'The princess turned into a frog.'
Reference
Comment Cf. also Russian вращаться, превращаться, borrowed from Church Slavonic. It is worth noting also оборотиться 'turn into', оборотень 'werewolf'.
ACCEPTED Realization 8
Type Cognates
Language 1 French
Language 2 Portuguese
Lexeme 1 tourner
Lexeme 2 tornar-se
Meaning 1 to rotate, turn La Terre tourne autour du Soleil.
'The Earth revolves around the Sun.'
Direction
Meaning 2 to turn into, to become
Reference Larousse online
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 9
Type Polysemy
Language Spanish
Lexeme volver
Meaning 1 to turn volver la cabeza
'to turn one's head'
Meaning 2 to transform volver en burla
'to turn into a joke'
Reference
Comment (Narumov 1995: 797)
ACCEPTED Realization 10
Type Polysemy
Language Azerbaijani
Lexeme çevir-
Meaning 1 to turn
Direction
Meaning 2 to transform
Reference ARRAL
Comment also çevril- 'to turn over, to turn into'
ACCEPTED Realization 11
Type Cognates
Language 1 Latin
Language 2 German
Lexeme 1 verto, -ere
Lexeme 2 werden
Meaning 1 to turn
Direction
Meaning 2 to become
Reference
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 12
Type Polysemy
Language Kildin Saami
Lexeme коаввсэ
Meaning 1 to turn (back) коаввэсьт чув гоаррэ кāсвэнѣ
'turn your face to the north'
Direction
Meaning 2 to become similar, to turn into пāррьшя коаввэсьт ажэсь коавва; акэшка коаввэсьт оадзэнѣ
'The boy started looking similar to his father, the old woman turned into a spider'
Reference Kuruč 1985: 94
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 13
Type Semantic evolution
Language 1 Ancient Greek
Language 2 Modern Greek
Lexeme μετατρέπω
Meaning 1 to turn back μετὰ δ᾽ ἐτράπετο
'(Achilles) turned back'
Direction
Meaning 2 to transform
Reference Xorikov, Malev 1993: 514
Comment Probably Modern Greek meaning appeared under influence French convertir.
ACCEPTED Realization 14
Type Polysemy
Language English
Lexeme turn
Meaning 1 to turn, rotate (intr.) turn towards me!
'повернись ко мне!'
Meaning 2 to become a. to turn sour; b. to turn traitor;
'1) ‘сделаться кислым’;'
Reference
Comment The English word was borrowed from the Old French tourner 'spin'.
ACCEPTED Realization 15
Type Derivation
Language Russian
Lexeme 1 vraščat'sja
Lexeme 2 prevratit'sja
Meaning 1 to spin, to rotate
Meaning 2 to turn into
Reference
Comment
ACCEPTED Realization 16
Type Polysemy
Language Uzbek
Lexeme aylan-
Meaning 1 to spin, to go round, to turn
Meaning 2 to turn into suv muzga aylandi
'the water turned into ice'
Reference
Comment Cf. The same in Karaim айлан- . КРПС 53
ACCEPTED Realization 17
Type Polysemy
Language Armenian
Lexeme dařnal
Meaning 1 to turn (back)
Direction
Meaning 2 to turn into, to become
Reference
Comment АрмРС 179
ACCEPTED Realization 18
Type Polysemy
Language Karaim
Lexeme кайыр-
Meaning 1 to turn, to rotate
Meaning 2 to transform кÿннÿ кечеге кайырадылар
'They turned day into night'
Reference
Comment КРПС 285.
ACCEPTED Realization 19
Type Polysemy
Language Tabassaran
Lexeme ilt’i(b)k’ub
Meaning 1 to spin, to roll тIириччв илтIибкIура
'the spinning top is whirling'
Direction
Meaning 2 to transform жанавриз илтIикIуб
'to turn into a wolf'
Reference
Comment (TabRus 174)
NEW Realization 20
Type Polysemy
Language Turkish
Lexeme dön-
Meaning 1 to turn, rotate (intr.) tekerlek dönüyor
'the weel is turning'
Direction
Meaning 2 to become bahçeye emek verilince cennete döndü
'After the efforts applied to a garden it turned into a paradise.'
Reference Baskakov 1977: 246
Comment
NEW Realization 21
Type Semantic evolution
Language Irish Gaelic
Lexeme iompaigh
Meaning 1 to turn, rotate (intr.) Do cheann a iompu
'to turn one's head'
Direction
Meaning 2 to become d'iompaigh se ina Chaitliceach
'he became a Catholic'
Reference Ó Dónaill 1977: 721
Comment